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Today’s Agenda Homework: Study For Test!! Homework: Study For Test!! Quick-Write: None Quick-Write: None The Yellow River Valley PowerPoint The Yellow River Valley PowerPoint Philosophy Discussion Philosophy Discussion
Aim: The Yellow River Valley
Geography Consists of three main rivers Consists of three main rivers –Huang (Yellow), Chang and Xi Rivers Rivers flooding is unpredictable Rivers flooding is unpredictable Rivers produced loess Rivers produced loess –fertile yellow soil Isolated due to natural barriers Isolated due to natural barriers –Gobi Desert and Himalaya Mountains
The Middle Kingdom Felt it was the center of the world Felt it was the center of the world –called itself the “Middle Kingdom” Felt its culture was superior than every other culture Felt its culture was superior than every other culture –known as ethnocentrism Ethnocentrism lead to isolationism Ethnocentrism lead to isolationism –traditional lifestyle China did not come in contact with other civilizations China did not come in contact with other civilizations –lacked technology
Eventually, the Chinese discontinued the expeditions due to ethnocentrism. The Chinese believed that they were superior to other cultures.
The Chinese believed that they were the “Middle Kingdom.” They believed that they could learn nothing important from other inferior cultures.
Though China was very advanced for the time period, isolationism caused China to fall behind.
The Shang Dynasty First dynasty of China First dynasty of China –dynasty: a ruling family Developed a writing system called calligraphy Developed a writing system called calligraphy –eventually became a form of art Believed in animism and ancestor worship Believed in animism and ancestor worship –animism: belief spirits inhabit all objects
The first known dynasty of China was the Shang dynasty. This dynasty united the people living around the Huang He and Yangtze river valleys.
The Zhou Dynasty Emperors justified their takeover due to the Mandate of Heaven Emperors justified their takeover due to the Mandate of Heaven –belief that gods picked the emperor to rule but the gods could also remove a bad emperor from power The rise and fall of dynasties is known as the dynastic cycle The rise and fall of dynasties is known as the dynastic cycle
Zhou rulers claimed the Mandate of Heaven or the right to rule. However, the gods could remove the ruler’s right to rule.
The Qin Dynasty Built the Great Wall of China Built the Great Wall of China –built to keep invaders out –didn't work Established a strong centralized government Established a strong centralized government –one government controlled all local areas
During Qin China, the Chinese began building the Great Wall of China. The Great Wall of China was built to protect China from nomadic invaders.
The Han Dynasty China’s “Golden Age” China’s “Golden Age” –numerous inventions were introduced porcelain, silk, gunpowder, printing press, compass porcelain, silk, gunpowder, printing press, compass Developed the civil service exam Developed the civil service exam –people needed to do well on tests to obtain jobs –questions based on Confucianism Silk Road emerged Silk Road emerged –trade between China and the Middle East –lead to cultural diffusion
It is important to remember that during the Han dynasty, a scholar had to pass a test on Chinese history and Confucianism to work in the government.
To work for the government, a Chinese man had to pass a difficult examination. By establishing a civil service examination, education was emphasized.
The Silk Road was a famous Chinese trading route.
Throughout Chinese history, there have been many great philosophers.
Confucianism Most influential philosophy in China ever! Most influential philosophy in China ever! Stressed: Stressed: –respect for elders –education is important –follow a code of moral conduct –maintain political and social order –filial piety (worship of family) –each society member must complete their duty –the five relationships of Confucius –people must do their assigned tasks and duties
While all three philosophies greatly influenced China, Confucianism became the official philosophy of dynastic China.
In Confucianism, a son must obey his father.
Daoism Stressed nature Stressed nature Believed in the Ying-Yang Believed in the Ying-Yang
The Yin-Yang is a popular Daoist or Taoist symbol.
Legalism Believed: Believed: –people are born bad –people are selfish –people needed laws to control them –people need to be punished harshly to main order in society
Putting Them Together All three philosophies try to establish: All three philosophies try to establish: –peace –political and social order –respect for authority
Chinese Accomplishments Gunpowder Gunpowder Compass Compass Porcelain Porcelain Metal Printing Press Metal Printing Press Paper Paper The Silk Road The Silk Road –trade between Asia and Europe/Middle East Acupuncture Acupuncture Oldest Male Head of Household Oldest Male Head of Household Extended Family Extended Family
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