24 First Age of Empires, 1570 B.C.–200 B.C. HOME4CHAPTERFirst Age of Empires,1570 B.C.–200 B.C.Chapter OverviewA series of empires, each one bigger than the last, forges regional unity among the old heartlands of civilization from the Nile to the Iranian Plateau. Meanwhile, the Chinese Empire emerges as a cultural and political unit.
34 First Age of Empires, 1570 B.C.–200 B.C. HOME Time Line 1570 B.C. CHAPTERFirst Age of Empires,1570 B.C.–200 B.C.Time Line1544 B.C. Egypt’s New Kingdom established.751 B.C. Nubian kingdom of Kush conquers Egypt.206 B.C. The Qin Dynasty of China collapses. Civil War follows.1570 B.C.200 B.C.850 B.C. Assyrian Empire begins its rise to power.550 B.C. Persian Empire flourishes under Cyrus.
4The Empires of Egypt and Nubia Collide HOME1The Empires of Egyptand Nubia CollideKey IdeaThe New Kingdom forges a brilliant Egyptian Empire, which is eventually conquered and ruled by the Nubians of Kush. The Kushites later establish an Egyptian-style kingdom of their own farther south.
6Ancient NubiaKush, the Egyptian name for ancient Nubia, was the site of a highly advanced, ancient black African civilization that rivaled ancient Egypt in wealth, power and cultural development.
7The Egyptian and Nubian Empires SECTION1The Egyptian and Nubian EmpiresNomadic Invaders Rule EgyptInvaders• About 1640 B.C., Asian warriors, the Hyksos, usechariots to conquer EgyptHebrews Migrate to Egypt• Hebrews move to Egypt from Canaan around 1650 B.C.• Egyptians resent the presence of Hebrews and Hyksosin EgyptExpulsion and Slavery• Egyptians drive out the hated Hyksos• Hebrews lose protection of Hyksos; are enslavedNEXT
8The New Kingdom of Egypt SECTION1The New Kingdom of EgyptTechnological Changes• About 1570 to 1075 B.C. pharaohs create New Kingdom, a powerful empire• Army uses bronze weapons and chariots to conquer other landsImageImageContinued . . .NEXT
9Event 1 1472 B.C. Hatshepsut’s Prosperous Rule • Hatshepsut—pharaoh whose reign most noted for her trade expeditions, not warOpened trade in Punt (modern day Somalia)
10Image Thutmose the Empire Builder SECTION1continued The New Kingdom of EgyptThutmose the Empire Builder• Thutmose III, Hatshepsut’s stepson, expands Egypt’s empire• Invades Palestine, Syria, and Nubia—region around the upper Nile River• Egypt most powerful and wealthy during reign of New Kingdom pharoahsImageContinued . . .NEXT
11The Egyptians and the Hittites SECTION1Event B.C.The Egyptians and the Hittites• Around 1285 B.C. Egyptians battle the Hittites in Palestine• Egypt’s pharaoh, Ramses II, and the Hittite king sign a peace treatyImageNEXT
12Event 3 1290-1224 B.C. An Age of Builders • New Kingdom pharaohs built great palaces,magnificent temples• Valley of the Kings near Thebes is home to royal tombs• Ramses II builds impressive temples withenormous statues of himself
14Event 4 1200 B.C. Invasion by Land and Sea • “Sea Peoples” (possibly Philistines) cause greatdestruction in Egypt• Libyan raids on villages and Palestine rebellions weaken empire
15Event 6 950-730 B.C. Egypt’s Empire Fades SECTION1Event B.C.Egypt’s Empire Fades• Weakened empire breaks into smaller kingdoms• From around 950 to 730 B.C. Libyan pharaohs rule Egypt, erect citiesNEXT
16Kush Conquers Egypt, 730 BCAround 730 B.C., Kush's warrior hordes turned the tables on a weakened Egypt and conquered it.This event established the black Pharaohs from Kush.
17The Kushites Conquer the Nile Region SECTION1The Kushites Conquer the Nile RegionEgypt and Kush• From 2000 to 1000 B.C., Egypt dominateskingdom of Kush in Nubia, but as Egypt fell into decline Kush began to emerge as a regional powerMapThe People of Nubia• Live south of Egypt near division of Blue Nile and White Nile• Nile River is a great trade route for goods andideas• Nubians link Egypt and Mediterranean to African interior through tradeContinued . . .NEXT
18The Interaction of Egypt and Nubia SECTION1continued The Kushites Conquer the Nile RegionImageEvent B.C.The Interaction of Egypt and Nubia• Egyptian culture influences Nubia and beyond to southern Africa• About 1200 B.C., Nubia gains independence but keeps Egyptian cultureNEXT
19Event 7 751 B.C. Piankhi Captures the Egyptian Throne • In 751 B.C., Kushite king Piankhi conquersEgypt, ousts Libyans• Assyrians overcome Kushites and take Egypt
20Gold from NubiaFor the next four centuries, the Egyptians exploited Kush as a colony.Egypt's wealth in gold came from the desert mines of Kush. The Egyptian word for gold is nub, which is thought by some to be the origin of the name Nubia.Model coffin of Tutankhamun, probably made from Nubian gold. Found in his tomb at Thebes. Egypt, Dynasty 18, ca BCE.
21PiankhiPiankhi, (d BC) was a Kushite king and founder of the Twenty-fifth dynasty of Egypt.He ruled Egypt from the city of Napata, located deep in Nubia.
22Piankhi’s dynasty proved to be short lived. In 671B. C Piankhi’s dynasty proved to be short lived. In 671B.C. the Assyrians, warlike people from Southwest Asia, conquered Egypt.Event 8671 B.C.
23SECTION1The Golden Age of Meroë• Kushites settle Meroë; join in trade with Africa, Arabia, IndiaThe Wealth of Kush• Meroë becomes important center for ironweapons and tools• Iron products transported to Red Sea, exchanged for luxury goodsThe Decline of Meroë• Meroë thrives from about 250 B.C. to A.D. 150,then declines• Aksum, 400 miles southeast, dominates NorthAfrican trade• Has port on Red Sea, defeats Meroë in A.D. 350NEXT
2425th Dynasty of EgyptBlack Pharoahs ruled an Egyptian- Nubian empire that extended from the Medi-terranean to the confluence of the Blue and White Niles for sixty years.Historians would count their reign as Egypt's 25th Dynasty.Twenty-Fifth DynastyNameDatesAlaraKashta–Piankhic. 752 BC – 721 BCShabaka721 BC – 707 BCShebitku707 BC – 690 BCTaharqa690 – 664 BCTantamani664 – 656 BC (died 653 BC)
26Ancient EgyptAncient Egypt was a civilization in eastern North Africa concentrated along the middle to lower reaches of the Nile River that reached its greatest extent in the second millennium BC during the New Kingdom.
27Old Kingdom (2700 B.C.–2184 B.C.)The Old Kingdom (Dynasties 3 to 6) was a period of great prosperity and innovation whose most memorable feature was surely the pyramid.Pyramids of Giza
28New Kingdom (1570 B.C.–1070 B.C.) Temple of Ramses II Dynasty 18 through Dynasty 20, known as the New Kingdom, witnessed a time of international prestige and prosperity for Egypt.The kings of this period conducted extensive military, diplomatic and trade relations with Nubians as far south as the Fourth Cataract in Nubia.
29The Empires of Egypt and Nubia Collide 1 • Hyksos • New Kingdom HOME1The Empires of Egyptand Nubia CollideTERMS & NAMESOverview• Hyksos• New Kingdom• Hatshepsut• Thutmose III• Nubia• Ramses II• Kush• Piankhi• MeroëMAIN IDEAWHY IT MATTERS NOWTwo empires along the Nile, Egypt and Nubia, forged commercial, cultural, and political connections.Neighboring civilizations participate in cultural exchange as well as conflict.Assessment
30The Empires of Egypt and Nubia Collide 1 HOME1The Empires of Egyptand Nubia CollideSection1Assessment1. Look at the graphic to help organize your thoughts. List important events in the history of Egypt and Kush.1285 B.C. Battle of Kadesh1200 B.C. People of the Sea attack Egypt.B.C. Libyans rule Egypt.1570 B.C.A.D. 350Egyptian New KingdomAksum defeats Meroë.1472 B.C. Hatshepsut makes herself pharaoh.B.C. Ramses II rules.1100 B.C. Kush regains independence.671 B.C. Kushites lose Egypt to Assyrians.continued . . .
31The Empires of Egypt and Nubia Collide 1 HOME1The Empires of Egyptand Nubia CollideSection1Assessment2. Read the temple inscription written by Piankhi. Explain how an Egyptian might have written the inscription differently. THINK ABOUT• what bias Piankhi hadANSWER• how Egyptians benefited from Piankhi’s invasion• why Egyptians might have disagreed with PiankhiPossible Response:An Egyptian might have praised the Kushites for restoring the Egyptian way of life or criticized them for ruling in place of Egyptians.continued . . .
32The Empires of Egypt and Nubia Collide 1 HOME1The Empires of Egyptand Nubia CollideSection1Assessment3. How did Egypt and Nubia strengthen each other at various times in their histories? THINK ABOUT• the role of trade and the movement of goods• the impact of military movements• the influence of cultural developmentsANSWERUnder Thutmose III, Egyptians brought gold, cattle, ivory, and slaves from Nubia.Under Egyptian control, Nubian princes adopted much of Egyptian culture.When Nubians seized power over Egypt, they tried to restore the Egyptian way of life.Possible Responses:End of Section 1
33What Social class would you find at the topof the pyramid?
35PharaohUpper ClassVery small group. Made up of Priests, members of the Pharaohs Court and Nobles
36Pharaoh Upper Class Middle Class Merchants and skilled workers Very small group. Made up of Priests, members of the Pharaohs Court and NoblesMerchants and skilled workersMiddle Class
37Not a very large class. They farmed and built roads & temples. PharaohUpper ClassVery small group. Made up of Priests, members of the Pharaohs Court and NoblesMerchants and skilled workersMiddle ClassNot a very large class. They farmed and built roads & temples.Peasants
38New EmpireSemitic-speaking people who exploited the use of iron weapons to build an empire by 700 B.C.Semitic-SpeakingSpoke Semitic languageIncluded Territory Fromincluding Mesopotamia, some of the Iranian Plateau, Asia Minor, Syria, Palestine, and Egypt.
40Military StrengthThe Assyrian military was one of the strongest in the ancient world.They used fierce iron weapons and psychological warfare.The Assyrians would often attempt to get an area to surrender before attack.If people refused and were defeated they were treated harshly.King Ashurnasirpal once stated“3,000 of their combat troops I felled with weapons Many I took alive; from some of these I cut off their hands to the writs, from others I cut off their noses, ears and fingers; I put out the eyes of many of the soldiers I burned their young men and women to death.”
41Military Organization Soldiers were well equipped for conquering.They wore copper or iron helmets, padded loinclothes and leather skirts with metal scalesIron swords and spearsAdvanced planning used pontoons to support a bridge to cross overThey dug beneath the enemies city walls to weaken them.Some soldiers would shoot arrows while the rest would hammer the city’s gates.Military Organization
42Assyrian RulersAssyrian kings ruled with absolute power.Kingdoms were well organized and efficient.Kept direct contact with the people who helped administer their empireTransportation/Courier systemThey est. a system where they could relay messages by horseback back and forth in a week’s time.AshurbanipalConsidered the greatest Assyrian King.He collected the writings of Mesopotamia and est. the great library of Nineveh
44Nineveh an "exceeding great city", as it is called in the Book of Jonah, lay on the eastern bank of the Tigris in ancient Assyria, near the modern-day major city of Mosul, Iraq which lies across the river.
45The Assyrian empire eventually fell and the Chaldeans (Neo Babylonians) under king Nebuchadnezzar made Babylon the most powerful state in the region.Nebuchadnezzar is most famous for the construction of the Hanging Gardens of Babylon, considered one of the seven wonders of the ancient world.Nebuchadnezzar is also responsible for the destruction of the Temple of Jerusalem and beginning the Babylonian Captivity of the Jews and the first Diaspora.Babylon is defeated and replaced by the Persian Empire in 539 B.C.
48Assyria Dominates the Fertile Crescent Overview • Sennacherib TERMS & NAMESOverview• Assyria• Sennacherib• Nineveh• Ashurbanipal• Medes• Chaldeans• NebuchadnezzarMAIN IDEAWHY IT MATTERS NOWAssyria developed a military machine, conquered an empire, and established imperial administration.Some leaders still use military force to extend their rule, stamp out opposition, and gain wealth and power.Assessment
49Causes of Increasing Power Assyria Dominatesthe Fertile CrescentSection2Assessment1. Look at the graphic to help organize your thoughts. Identify the causes of the rise and of the decline of Assyrian power.Assyrian Military PowerCauses of Declining Power1.2.3.Causes of Increasing PowerNeed to defend against attacksHatred by conquered peopleUse of iron-working technologyOverextensionSuccess at advanced planningUnity among Assyria’s foescontinued . . .
50Assyria Dominates the Fertile Crescent 2 Section2Assessment2. The Assyrians relied almost exclusively on military power in building, maintaining, and ruling their empire. Explain whether you think this was a good strategy.THINK ABOUT• the causes of Assyrian military power• the stability of the empire• the methods that empires use to become strongerANSWERPossible Response:Empires often rely on military power. Assyrians relied on a technological advantage that other countries could soon copy and that their brutal methods made them unpopular rulers.End of Section 2
51Cyrus the GreatPersian King who defeated Babylon and ended the Jews’ captivity.Cyrus ruled from 559 to 530 B.C. and was a great leader, hence the name Cyrus the Great.Ruling StyleHe was very respectful of other cultures. Not only did he free the Jews, but he also treated conquered peoples fairly. He allowed them to keep their own religions and customs.This respect made the people who lived under him respectful of his rule and less likely to revolt.
52Cyrus' tomb lies in the ruins of Pasargadae, now a UNESCO World Heritage Site (2006).
53Expansion of Empire under Darius I Ruled from B.C. added western India to the Persian Empire.Then added Thrace in Europe and expanded the Empire to its greatest size. He also brought the Persian Empire into conflict with the Greeks.SatrapiesDarius divided him empire into provinces calledSatrapies to make it more manageable.Each province was ruled by a governor called aSatrap.This man was the protector of the kingdom.They collected taxes, provided justiceand security, and got soldiers for the army.
54The Royal RoadThe Royal road stretched from Lydia to Susa, the chief capital of the empire. It used a system of couriers similar to the Assyrians. This allowed for efficient communication in the empirePersian MilitaryThe Persians had an elite military. It contained people from all over the Persian Empire.The ImmortalsThe Elite fighters of the Persian Empire.They were so called because in battle their numbers were never allowed to fall below 10,000 men. They were constantly replaced from behind so they appeared to never die.
55Persian kings became greedy and so the empire became weak. Family spats and assassinations became the rule of the day.The Empire was defeated by Alexander the Great during the 330’s B.C.
58ZoroastrianismOriginal Religion of the Persian EmpireZoroasterFounder and Prophet of the Religion. Also known as Zarathustra.Book: Zend Avesta, the recorded teachings of Zoroaster.MonotheisticTaught belief in one universal, all-powerful god.Ahura MazdaThe god of Zoroastrianism
59It is believed by many that Zoroastrianism influenced Judaism, and later, Christianity. The religion teaches about an all-powerful God.An ultimate battle between good and evil.The idea of an evil being, or Satan.
60Persia Unites Many Lands Key Idea GRAPHKey IdeaPersian kings forge a multicultural empire stretching from the Indus River to the Nile. Persia pioneers enlighten tolerance in government and support the Zoroastrian religion.OverviewAssessment
61Persia Unites Many Lands Overview 3 • Cyrus • Cambyses • Darius HOME3Persia UnitesMany LandsGRAPHTERMS & NAMESOverview• Cyrus• Cambyses• Darius• satrap• Royal Road• ZoroasterMAIN IDEAWHY IT MATTERS NOWThe Persian Empire ruled with tolerance and wise government.Tolerance and wise government are characteristics of the most successful methods of rule.Assessment
62Persia Unites Many Lands 3 HOMEPersia UnitesMany LandsSection3Assessment1. Look at the graphic to help organize your thoughts. Explain the similarities and differences between Cyrus and Darius.Cyrus OnlyDarius OnlyBothCyrus founded the Persian Empire and allowed the Jews to return to Jerusalem.Both ruled fairly and expanded the empire.Darius seized power and introduced coins of standard value.continued . . .
63Persia Unites Many Lands 3 HOMEPersia UnitesMany LandsGRAPHSection3Assessment2. Why do you think Persians and other peoples were able to turn their thoughts to religion? THINK ABOUT• past history of peoples in the Fertile Crescent• living conditions in the Persian Empire• role of leaders in the Persian EmpireANSWERPossible Response:The tolerance displayed by Cyrus and other Persian rulers probably encouraged people to practice their religious beliefs.continued . . .
64Persia Unites Many Lands 3 HOMEPersia UnitesMany LandsGRAPHSection3Assessment3. How did Darius’s methods of administration give stability to his empire? THINK ABOUT• the structure of the empire• policy of tolerance• the role of the satrapANSWERHe divided the empire into 20 provinces.He appointed a satrap for each province.He tolerated other religions, languages, and local laws.Road system and coinage also helped give stability to the empire.Possible Responses:End of Section 3
669,573,000 square km geography Urumqi Beijing Xian Lhasa Shanghai KunmingGuangzhou9,573,000 square km
67Ancient civilizationBC: Unification of China1800s: Western imperialism1911: Republic founded: Chairman Mao: Cultural Revolution1997: Deng Xiaoping dies1997: Hong Kong returned to China1999: Macau returned to China
68The Unification of China Confucius and the Social OrderZhou Dynasty• Lasted 1027 to 256 B.C.; ancient values decline near end of dynastyConfucius Urges Harmony• End of Zhou Dynasty is time of disorder• Scholar Confucius wants to restore order,harmony, good government• Stresses developing good relationships, includingfamily• Promotes filial piety—respect for parents andancestors• Hopes to reform society by promoting goodgovernmentContinued . . .NEXT
70Confucius and the Social Order Confucian Ideas About Government• Thinks education can transform people• Teachings become foundation for bureaucracy, a trained civil service• Confucianism is an ethical system of right and wrong, not a religion• Chinese government and social order is based on ConfucianismNEXT
71Other Ethical Systems Image Daoists Seek Harmony • Laozi teaches that people should follow thenatural order of life• Believes that universal force called Dao guidesall things• Daoism philosophy is to understand nature andbe free of desire• Daoists influence sciences, alchemy, astronomy, medicineImageLegalists Urge Harsh Rule• Legalism emphasizes the use of law to restore order; stifles criticism• Teaches that obedience should be rewarded,disobedience punishedContinued . . .NEXT
72Legendary Chinese philosopher Laozi was long considered the founder of Daoism. The fundamental text of Daoism, the Daodejing (Tao-te Ching,“Book of the Way and the Virtue”), was attributed to him. Many scholars today doubt that Laozi existed. Even if he did, he probably did not write the Daodejing, which was compiled in the 3rd or 4th century bc, two or three centuries after Laozi’s time.Laozi
73Other Ethical Systems (cont.) I Ching and Yin and Yang• I Ching (The Book of Changes) offers good advice,common sense• Concept of yin and yang—two powers representrhythm of universe• Yin: cold, dark, soft, mysterious; yang: warm, bright,hard, clear• I Ching and yin and yang explain how people fit intothe worldImageNEXT
75The Qin Dynasty Unifies China • Qin Dynasty replaces Zhou Dynasty in thirdcentury B.C.A New Emperor Takes Control• Emperor Shi Huangdi unifies China, ends fighting,conquers new lands• Creates 36 administrative districts controlled by Qinofficials• With legalist prime minister, murders Confucian scholars, burns books• Establishes an autocracy, a government withunlimited powerImageContinued . . .NEXT
77The Qin Dynasty Unifies China A Program of Centralization• Shi Huangdi builds highways, irrigation projects;increases trade• Sets standards for writing, law, currency, weights andmeasures• Harsh rule includes high taxes and repressivegovernmentGreat Wall of China• Emperor forces peasants to build Great Wall to keepout invadersImageThe Fall of the Qin• Shi Huangdi’s son loses the throne to rebel leader;Han Dynasty beginsNEXT