Presentation on theme: "ANCIENT EGYPT and NUBIA Ch. 4 Sect. I. HOME Chapter Overview A series of empires, each one bigger than the last, forges regional unity among the old heartlands."— Presentation transcript:
ANCIENT EGYPT and NUBIA Ch. 4 Sect. I
HOME Chapter Overview A series of empires, each one bigger than the last, forges regional unity among the old heartlands of civilization from the Nile to the Iranian Plateau. Meanwhile, the Chinese Empire emerges as a cultural and political unit. First Age of Empires, 1570 B.C. –200 B.C. 4 CHAPTER
1544 B.C. Egypt’s New Kingdom established. 850 B.C. Assyrian Empire begins its rise to power. 751 B.C. Nubian kingdom of Kush conquers Egypt. 550 B.C. Persian Empire flourishes under Cyrus. First Age of Empires, 1570 B.C. –200 B.C. 4 CHAPTER Time Line 1570 B.C. 200 B.C. HOME 206 B.C. The Qin Dynasty of China collapses. Civil War follows.
The New Kingdom forges a brilliant Egyptian Empire, which is eventually conquered and ruled by the Nubians of Kush. The Kushites later establish an Egyptian-style kingdom of their own farther south. Key Idea The Empires of Egypt and Nubia Collide 1 HOME
Ancient Nubia Kush, the Egyptian name for ancient Nubia, was the site of a highly advanced, ancient black African civilization that rivaled ancient Egypt in wealth, power and cultural development.
NEXT Nomadic Invaders Rule Egypt The Egyptian and Nubian Empires Invaders About 1640 B.C., Asian warriors, the Hyksos, use chariots to conquer Egypt Hebrews Migrate to Egypt Hebrews move to Egypt from Canaan around 1650 B.C. Egyptians resent the presence of Hebrews and Hyksos in Egypt Expulsion and Slavery Egyptians drive out the hated Hyksos Hebrews lose protection of Hyksos; are enslaved SECTIO N 1
NEXT The New Kingdom of Egypt Continued... SECTIO N 1 Technological Changes About 1570 to 1075 B.C. pharaohs create New Kingdom, a powerful empire Army uses bronze weapons and chariots to conquer other lands Image
Event B.C. Hatshepsut’s Prosperous Rule Hatshepsut—pharaoh whose reign most noted for her trade expeditions, not war Opened trade in Punt (modern day Somalia)
NEXT continued The New Kingdom of Egypt SECTIO N 1 Thutmose the Empire Builder Thutmose III, Hatshepsut’s stepson, expands Egypt’s empire Invades Palestine, Syria, and Nubia—region around the upper Nile River Egypt most powerful and wealthy during reign of New Kingdom pharoahs Continued... Image
NEXT The Egyptians and the Hittites Around 1285 B.C. Egyptians battle the Hittites in Palestine Egypt’s pharaoh, Ramses II, and the Hittite king sign a peace treaty Event B.C. SECTIO N 1 Image
Event B.C. An Age of Builders New Kingdom pharaohs built great palaces, magnificent temples Valley of the Kings near Thebes is home to royal tombs Ramses II builds impressive temples with enormous statues of himself
Ramses II Ramses II
Event B.C. Invasion by Land and Sea “Sea Peoples” (possibly Philistines) cause great destruction in Egypt Libyan raids on villages and Palestine rebellions weaken empire
NEXT SECTIO N 1 Event B.C. Egypt’s Empire Fades Weakened empire breaks into smaller kingdoms From around 950 to 730 B.C. Libyan pharaohs rule Egypt, erect cities
Kush Conquers Egypt, 730 BC Around 730 B.C., Kush's warrior hordes turned the tables on a weakened Egypt and conquered it. This event established the black Pharaohs from Kush.
NEXT The Kushites Conquer the Nile Region SECTIO N 1 Egypt and Kush From 2000 to 1000 B.C., Egypt dominates kingdom of Kush in Nubia, but as Egypt fell into decline Kush began to emerge as a regional power The People of Nubia Live south of Egypt near division of Blue Nile and White Nile Nile River is a great trade route for goods and ideas Nubians link Egypt and Mediterranean to African interior through trade Continued... Map
NEXT Event B.C. The Interaction of Egypt and Nubia Egyptian culture influences Nubia and beyond to southern Africa About 1200 B.C., Nubia gains independence but keeps Egyptian culture continued The Kushites Conquer the Nile Region SECTIO N 1 Image
Event B.C. Piankhi Captures the Egyptian Throne In 751 B.C., Kushite king Piankhi conquers Egypt, ousts Libyans Assyrians overcome Kushites and take Egypt
Gold from Nubia Model coffin of Tutankhamun, probably made from Nubian gold. Found in his tomb at Thebes. Egypt, Dynasty 18, ca BCE. For the next four centuries, the Egyptians exploited Kush as a colony. Egypt's wealth in gold came from the desert mines of Kush. The Egyptian word for gold is nub, which is thought by some to be the origin of the name Nubia.
Piankhi Piankhi, (d. 721 BC) was a Kushite king and founder of the Twenty-fifth dynasty of Egypt. He ruled Egypt from the city of Napata, located deep in Nubia.
Piankhi’s dynasty proved to be short lived. In 671B.C. the Assyrians, warlike people from Southwest Asia, conquered Egypt. Event B.C.
NEXT The Golden Age of Meroë SECTIO N 1 Kushites settle Meroë; join in trade with Africa, Arabia, India The Wealth of Kush Meroë becomes important center for iron weapons and tools Iron products transported to Red Sea, exchanged for luxury goods The Decline of Meroë Meroë thrives from about 250 B.C. to A.D. 150, then declines Aksum, 400 miles southeast, dominates North African trade Has port on Red Sea, defeats Meroë in A.D. 350
25 th Dynasty of Egypt Twenty-Fifth Dynasty NameDates Alara Kashta– Piankhi c. 752 BC – 721 BC Shabaka 721 BC – 707 BC Shebitku 707 BC – 690 BC Taharqa690 – 664 BC Tantamani 664 – 656 BC (died 653 BC) Black Pharoahs ruled an Egyptian- Nubian empire that extended from the Medi-terranean to the confluence of the Blue and White Niles for sixty years. Historians would count their reign as Egypt's 25th Dynasty.
Ancient Egypt Ancient Egypt was a civilization in eastern North Africa concentrated along the middle to lower reaches of the Nile River that reached its greatest extent in the second millennium BC during the New Kingdom.
Old Kingdom (2700 B.C.–2184 B.C.) The Old Kingdom (Dynasties 3 to 6) was a period of great prosperity and innovation whose most memorable feature was surely the pyramid. Pyramids of Giza
New Kingdom (1570 B.C.–1070 B.C.) Temple of Ramses II Dynasty 18 through Dynasty 20, known as the New Kingdom, witnessed a time of international prestige and prosperity for Egypt. The kings of this period conducted extensive military, diplomatic and trade relations with Nubians as far south as the Fourth Cataract in Nubia.
MAIN IDEA WHY IT MATTERS NOW Two empires along the Nile, Egypt and Nubia, forged commercial, cultural, and political connections. Neighboring civilizations participate in cultural exchange as well as conflict. Overview The Empires of Egypt and Nubia Collide 1 Assessment Hyksos New Kingdom Hatshepsut Thutmose III Nubia Ramses II Kush Piankhi Meroë TERMS & NAMES HOME
The Empires of Egypt and Nubia Collide 1 Section 1 Assessment continued... HOME 1. Look at the graphic to help organize your thoughts. List important events in the history of Egypt and Kush B.C. Battle of Kadesh 1200 B.C. People of the Sea attack Egypt B.C. Libyans rule Egypt B.C. Hatshepsut makes herself pharaoh B.C. Ramses II rules B.C.A.D. 350 Egyptian New Kingdom Aksum defeats Meroë B.C. Kush regains independence. 671 B.C. Kushites lose Egypt to Assyrians.
2. Read the temple inscription written by Piankhi. Explain how an Egyptian might have written the inscription differently. THINK ABOUT Section The Empires of Egypt and Nubia Collide 1 1 Assessment what bias Piankhi had how Egyptians benefited from Piankhi’s invasion why Egyptians might have disagreed with Piankhi ANSWER continued... An Egyptian might have praised the Kushites for restoring the Egyptian way of life or criticized them for ruling in place of Egyptians. Possible Response: HOME
3. How did Egypt and Nubia strengthen each other at various times in their histories? THINK ABOUT Section The Empires of Egypt and Nubia Collide 1 1 Assessment ANSWER End of Section 1 Under Thutmose III, Egyptians brought gold, cattle, ivory, and slaves from Nubia. Under Egyptian control, Nubian princes adopted much of Egyptian culture. When Nubians seized power over Egypt, they tried to restore the Egyptian way of life. Possible Responses: HOME the role of trade and the movement of goods the impact of military movements the influence of cultural developments
Very small group. Made up of Priests, members of the Pharaohs Court and Nobles
Merchants and skilled workers
Not a very large class. They farmed and built roads & temples. Very small group. Made up of Priests, members of the Pharaohs Court and Nobles Merchants and skilled workers
New Empire Semitic-speaking people who exploited the use of iron weapons to build an empire by 700 B.C. Semitic-Speaking Spoke Semitic language Included Territory From including Mesopotamia, some of the Iranian Plateau, Asia Minor, Syria, Palestine, and Egypt.
Military Strength The Assyrian military was one of the strongest in the ancient world. They used fierce iron weapons and psychological warfare. If people refused and were defeated they were treated harshly. King Ashurnasirpal once stated “3,000 of their combat troops I felled with weapons... Many I took alive; from some of these I cut off their hands to the writs, from others I cut off their noses, ears and fingers; I put out the eyes of many of the soldiers.... I burned their young men and women to death.” The Assyrians would often attempt to get an area to surrender before attack.
Military Organization Soldiers were well equipped for conquering. They wore copper or iron helmets, padded loinclothes and leather skirts with metal scales Iron swords and spears Advanced planning used pontoons to support a bridge to cross over They dug beneath the enemies city walls to weaken them. Some soldiers would shoot arrows while the rest would hammer the city’s gates.
Assyrian Rulers Assyrian kings ruled with absolute power. Kingdoms were well organized and efficient. Kept direct contact with the people who helped administer their empire Transportation/Courier system They est. a system where they could relay messages by horseback back and forth in a week’s time. Ashurbanipal Considered the greatest Assyrian King. He collected the writings of Mesopotamia and est. the great library of Nineveh
Nineveh an "exceeding great city", as it is called in the Book of Jonah, lay on the eastern bank of the Tigris in ancient Assyria, near the modern-day major city of Mosul, Iraq which lies across the river. Book of JonahTigrisAssyriaMosul Iraq
The Assyrian empire eventually fell and the Chaldeans (Neo Babylonians) under king Nebuchadnezzar made Babylon the most powerful state in the region. Nebuchadnezzar is most famous for the construction of the Hanging Gardens of Babylon, considered one of the seven wonders of the ancient world. Nebuchadnezzar is also responsible for the destruction of the Temple of Jerusalem and beginning the Babylonian Captivity of the Jews and the first Diaspora. Babylon is defeated and replaced by the Persian Empire in 539 B.C.
Assyria Dominates the Fertile Crescent Assyria developed a military machine, conquered an empire, and established imperial administration. Some leaders still use military force to extend their rule, stamp out opposition, and gain wealth and power. Overview Assessment Assyria Sennacherib Nineveh Ashurbanipal Medes Chaldeans Nebuchadnezzar MAIN IDEA WHY IT MATTERS NOW TERMS & NAMES
Causes of Declining Power Causes of Increasing Power 3. Assyria Dominates the Fertile Crescent 1. Look at the graphic to help organize your thoughts. Identify the causes of the rise and of the decline of Assyrian power. Section 2 Assessment continued... Need to defend against attacks Use of iron-working technology Hatred by conquered people Overextension Assyrian Military Power Success at advanced planning Unity among Assyria’s foes
Assyria Dominates the Fertile Crescent 2. The Assyrians relied almost exclusively on military power in building, maintaining, and ruling their empire. Explain whether you think this was a good strategy. THINK ABOUT Section 2 Assessment the causes of Assyrian military power the stability of the empire the methods that empires use to become stronger ANSWER Empires often rely on military power. Assyrians relied on a technological advantage that other countries could soon copy and that their brutal methods made them unpopular rulers. Possible Response: End of Section 2
Cyrus the Great Persian King who defeated Babylon and ended the Jews’ captivity. Cyrus ruled from 559 to 530 B.C. and was a great leader, hence the name Cyrus the Great. Ruling Style He was very respectful of other cultures. Not only did he free the Jews, but he also treated conquered peoples fairly. He allowed them to keep their own religions and customs. This respect made the people who lived under him respectful of his rule and less likely to revolt.
Cyrus' tomb lies in the ruins of Pasargadae, now a UNESCO World Heritage Site (2006).tomb PasargadaeUNESCOWorld Heritage Site
Expansion of Empire under Darius I Ruled from B.C. added western India to the Persian Empire. Then added Thrace in Europe and expanded the Empire to its greatest size. He also brought the Persian Empire into conflict with the Greeks. Satrapies Darius divided him empire into provinces called Satrapies to make it more manageable. Each province was ruled by a governor called aSatrap. This man was the protector of the kingdom. They collected taxes, provided justice and security, and got soldiers for the army.
The Royal Road The Royal road stretched from Lydia to Susa, the chief capital of the empire. It used a system of couriers similar to the Assyrians. This allowed for efficient communication in the empire Persian Military The Persians had an elite military. It contained people from all over the Persian Empire. The Immortals The Elite fighters of the Persian Empire. They were so called because in battle their numbers were never allowed to fall below 10,000 men. They were constantly replaced from behind so they appeared to never die.
Persian kings became greedy and so the empire became weak. Family spats and assassinations became the rule of the day. The Empire was defeated by Alexander the Great during the 330’s B.C.
Zoroastrianism Original Religion of the Persian EmpireZoroaster Founder and Prophet of the Religion. Also known as Zarathustra. Book: Zend Avesta, Book: Zend Avesta, the recorded teachings of Zoroaster.Monotheistic. Taught belief in one universal, all-powerful god. Ahura Mazda The god of Zoroastrianism
It is believed by many that Zoroastrianism influenced Judaism, and later, Christianity. The religion teaches about an all-powerful God. An ultimate battle between good and evil. The idea of an evil being, or Satan.
Persian kings forge a multicultural empire stretching from the Indus River to the Nile. Persia pioneers enlighten tolerance in government and support the Zoroastrian religion. Overview Assessment Key Idea Persia Unites Many Lands GRAPH
The Persian Empire ruled with tolerance and wise government. Tolerance and wise government are characteristics of the most successful methods of rule. Overview Assessment Cyrus Cambyses Darius satrap Royal Road Zoroaster Persia Unites Many Lands 3 MAIN IDEA WHY IT MATTERS NOW TERMS & NAMES HOME GRAPH
Persia Unites Many Lands 1. Look at the graphic to help organize your thoughts. Explain the similarities and differences between Cyrus and Darius. Section 3 Assessment continued... HOME Both Both ruled fairly and expanded the empire. Cyrus founded the Persian Empire and allowed the Jews to return to Jerusalem. Darius seized power and introduced coins of standard value. Cyrus Only Darius Only
Persia Unites Many Lands Section 3 Assessment ANSWER The tolerance displayed by Cyrus and other Persian rulers probably encouraged people to practice their religious beliefs. Possible Response: 2. Why do you think Persians and other peoples were able to turn their thoughts to religion? THINK ABOUT past history of peoples in the Fertile Crescent living conditions in the Persian Empire role of leaders in the Persian Empire continued... HOME GRAPH
3. How did Darius’s methods of administration give stability to his empire? THINK ABOUT Section Persia Unites Many Lands 3 Assessment ANSWER End of Section 3 He divided the empire into 20 provinces. He appointed a satrap for each province. He tolerated other religions, languages, and local laws. Road system and coinage also helped give stability to the empire. Possible Responses: HOME the structure of the empire policy of tolerance the role of the satrap GRAPH
Ancient civilization BC: Unification of China 1800s: Western imperialism 1911: Republic founded : Chairman Mao : Cultural Revolution 1997: Deng Xiaoping dies 1997: Hong Kong returned to China 1999: Macau returned to China
NEXT Confucius and the Social Order The Unification of China Zhou Dynasty Lasted 1027 to 256 B.C.; ancient values decline near end of dynasty Confucius Urges Harmony End of Zhou Dynasty is time of disorder Scholar Confucius wants to restore order, harmony, good government Stresses developing good relationships, including family Promotes filial piety—respect for parents and ancestors Hopes to reform society by promoting good government Continued...
NEXT Confucian Ideas About Government Thinks education can transform people Teachings become foundation for bureaucracy, a trained civil service Confucianism is an ethical system of right and wrong, not a religion Chinese government and social order is based on Confucianism Confucius and the Social Order
NEXT Other Ethical Systems Daoists Seek Harmony Laozi teaches that people should follow the natural order of life Believes that universal force called Dao guides all things Daoism philosophy is to understand nature and be free of desire Daoists influence sciences, alchemy, astronomy, medicine Legalists Urge Harsh Rule Legalism emphasizes the use of law to restore order; stifles criticism Teaches that obedience should be rewarded, disobedience punished Continued... Image
Laozi Legendary Chinese philosopher Laozi was long considered the founder of Daoism. The fundamental text of Daoism, the Daodejing (Tao-te Ching,“Book of the Way and the Virtue”), was attributed to him. Many scholars today doubt that Laozi existed. Even if he did, he probably did not write the Daodejing, which was compiled in the 3rd or 4th century BC, two or three centuries after Laozi’s time.
NEXT I Ching and Yin and Yang I Ching (The Book of Changes) offers good advice, common sense Concept of yin and yang—two powers represent rhythm of universe Yin: cold, dark, soft, mysterious; yang: warm, bright, hard, clear I Ching and yin and yang explain how people fit into the world Other Ethical Systems (cont.) Image
Yin and Yang
NEXT The Qin Dynasty Unifies China The Qin Dynasty Qin Dynasty replaces Zhou Dynasty in third century B.C. A New Emperor Takes Control Emperor Shi Huangdi unifies China, ends fighting, conquers new lands Creates 36 administrative districts controlled by Qin officials With legalist prime minister, murders Confucian scholars, burns books Establishes an autocracy, a government with unlimited power Continued... Image
NEXT A Program of Centralization Shi Huangdi builds highways, irrigation projects; increases trade Sets standards for writing, law, currency, weights and measures Harsh rule includes high taxes and repressive government The Qin Dynasty Unifies China Great Wall of China Emperor forces peasants to build Great Wall to keep out invaders The Fall of the Qin Shi Huangdi’s son loses the throne to rebel leader; Han Dynasty begins Image