Presentation on theme: "4 First Age of Empires, 1570 B.C.–200 B.C."— Presentation transcript:
1 4 First Age of Empires, 1570 B.C.–200 B.C. QUIT4CHAPTERFirst Age of Empires,1570 B.C.–200 B.C.Chapter OverviewTime LineSECTION1The Empires of Egypt and Nubia CollideSECTION2Assyria Dominates the Fertile CrescentSECTION3Persia Unites Many LandsGRAPHSECTION4An Empire Unifies ChinaVisual Summary
2 4 First Age of Empires, 1570 B.C.–200 B.C. HOME4CHAPTERFirst Age of Empires,1570 B.C.–200 B.C.Chapter OverviewA series of empires, each one bigger than the last, forges regional unity among the old heartlands of civilization from the Nile to the Iranian Plateau. Meanwhile, the Chinese Empire emerges as a cultural and political unit.
3 4 First Age of Empires, 1570 B.C.–200 B.C. HOME Time Line 1570 B.C. CHAPTERFirst Age of Empires,1570 B.C.–200 B.C.Time Line1544 B.C. Egypt’s New Kingdom established.751 B.C. Nubian kingdom of Kush conquers Egypt.206 B.C. The Qin Dynasty of China collapses. Civil War follows.1570 B.C.200 B.C.850 B.C. Assyrian Empire begins its rise to power.550 B.C. Persian Empire flourishes under Cyrus.
4 The Empires of Egypt and Nubia Collide Key Idea 1 HOME1The Empires of Egyptand Nubia CollideKey IdeaThe New Kingdom forges a brilliant Egyptian Empire, which is eventually conquered and ruled by the Nubians of Kush. The Kushites later establish an Egyptian-style kingdom of their own farther south.OverviewAssessment
5 The Empires of Egypt and Nubia Collide Overview 1 • Hyksos HOME1The Empires of Egyptand Nubia CollideTERMS & NAMESOverview• Hyksos• New Kingdom• Hatshepsut• Thutmose III• Nubia• Ramses II• Kush• Piankhi• MeroëMAIN IDEAWHY IT MATTERS NOWTwo empires along the Nile, Egypt and Nubia, forged commercial, cultural, and political connections.Neighboring civilizations participate in cultural exchange as well as conflict.Assessment
6 The Empires of Egypt and Nubia Collide 1 1 HOME1The Empires of Egyptand Nubia CollideSection1Assessment1. Look at the graphic to help organize your thoughts. List important events in the history of Egypt and Kush.1285 B.C. Battle of Kadesh1200 B.C. People of the Sea attack Egypt.B.C. Libyans rule Egypt.1570 B.C.A.D. 350Egyptian New KingdomAksum defeats Meroë.1472 B.C. Hatshepsut makes herself pharaoh.B.C. Ramses II rules.1100 B.C. Kush regains independence.671 B.C. Kushites lose Egypt to Assyrians.continued . . .
7 The Empires of Egypt and Nubia Collide 1 1 HOME1The Empires of Egyptand Nubia CollideSection1Assessment2. Read the temple inscription written by Piankhi. Explain how an Egyptian might have written the inscription differently. THINK ABOUT• what bias Piankhi had• how Egyptians benefited from Piankhi’s invasion• why Egyptians might have disagreed with PiankhiANSWERPossible Response:An Egyptian might have praised the Kushites for restoring the Egyptian way of life or criticized them for ruling in place of Egyptians.continued . . .
8 The Empires of Egypt and Nubia Collide 1 1 HOME1The Empires of Egyptand Nubia CollideSection1Assessment3. How did Egypt and Nubia strengthen each other at various times in their histories? THINK ABOUT• the role of trade and the movement of goods• the impact of military movements• the influence of cultural developmentsANSWERPossible Responses:Under Thutmose III, Egyptians brought gold, cattle, ivory, and slaves from Nubia.Under Egyptian control, Nubian princes adopted much of Egyptian culture.When Nubians seized power over Egypt, they tried to restore the Egyptian way of life.End of Section 1
9 Assyria Dominates the Fertile Crescent Key Idea 2 HOME2Assyria Dominatesthe Fertile CrescentKey IdeaThe Assyrians absorb Egypt into a Mesopotamian Empire and perfect terror as a means of rule. The Chaldeans and Medes finally annihilate Assyria, only to be swallowed up by the growing Persian Empire.OverviewAssessment
10 Assyria Dominates the Fertile Crescent Overview 2 • Assyria HOME2Assyria Dominatesthe Fertile CrescentTERMS & NAMESOverview• Assyria• Sennacherib• Nineveh• Ashurbanipal• Medes• Chaldeans• NebuchadnezzarMAIN IDEAWHY IT MATTERS NOWAssyria developed a military machine, conquered an empire, and established imperial administration.Some leaders still use military force to extend their rule, stamp out opposition, and gain wealth and power.Assessment
11 Assyrian Military Power Causes of Increasing Power HOME2Assyria Dominatesthe Fertile CrescentSection2Assessment1. Look at the graphic to help organize your thoughts. Identify the causes of the rise and of the decline of Assyrian power.Assyrian Military PowerCauses of Declining Power1.2.3.Causes of Increasing PowerNeed to defend against attacksHatred by conquered peopleUse of iron-working technologyOverextensionSuccess at advanced planningUnity among Assyria’s foescontinued . . .
12 Assyria Dominates the Fertile Crescent 2 2 HOME2Assyria Dominatesthe Fertile CrescentSection2Assessment2. The Assyrians relied almost exclusively on military power in building, maintaining, and ruling their empire. Explain whether you think this was a good strategy.THINK ABOUT• the causes of Assyrian military power• the stability of the empire• the methods that empires use to become strongerANSWERPossible Response:Empires often rely on military power. Assyrians relied on a technological advantage that other countries could soon copy and that their brutal methods made them unpopular rulers.End of Section 2
13 Persia Unites Many Lands Key Idea 3 HOME3Persia UnitesMany LandsGRAPHKey IdeaPersian kings forge a multicultural empire stretching from the Indus River to the Nile. Persia pioneers enlighten tolerance in government and support the Zoroastrian religion.OverviewAssessment
14 Persia Unites Many Lands Overview 3 • Cyrus • Cambyses • Darius HOME3Persia UnitesMany LandsGRAPHTERMS & NAMESOverview• Cyrus• Cambyses• Darius• satrap• Royal Road• ZoroasterMAIN IDEAWHY IT MATTERS NOWThe Persian Empire ruled with tolerance and wise government.Tolerance and wise government are characteristics of the most successful methods of rule.Assessment
15 Persia Unites Many Lands 3 3 HOME3Persia UnitesMany LandsGRAPHSection3Assessment1. Look at the graphic to help organize your thoughts. Explain the similarities and differences between Cyrus and Darius.Cyrus OnlyDarius OnlyBothCyrus founded the Persian Empire and allowed the Jews to return to Jerusalem.Both ruled fairly and expanded the empire.Darius seized power and introduced coins of standard value.continued . . .
16 Persia Unites Many Lands 3 3 HOME3Persia UnitesMany LandsGRAPHSection3Assessment2. Why do you think Persians and other peoples were able to turn their thoughts to religion? THINK ABOUT• past history of peoples in the Fertile Crescent• living conditions in the Persian Empire• role of leaders in the Persian EmpireANSWERPossible Response:The tolerance displayed by Cyrus and other Persian rulers probably encouraged people to practice their religious beliefs.continued . . .
17 Persia Unites Many Lands 3 3 HOME3Persia UnitesMany LandsGRAPHSection3Assessment3. How did Darius’s methods of administration give stability to his empire? THINK ABOUT• the structure of the empire• policy of tolerance• the role of the satrapANSWERPossible Responses:He divided the empire into 20 provinces.He appointed a satrap for each province.He tolerated other religions, languages, and local laws.Road system and coinage also helped give stability to the empire.End of Section 3
18 An Empire Unifies China Key Idea 4 HOME4An EmpireUnifies ChinaKey IdeaAmid the social chaos of the crumbling Zhou Dynasty, Chinese philosophers develop three major schools of thought. Shi Huangdi unifies China in a brutal military campaign and builds the Great Wall.OverviewAssessment
19 An Empire Unifies China Overview 4 • Confucius • filial piety HOME4An EmpireUnifies ChinaTERMS & NAMESOverview• Confucius• filial piety• bureaucracy• Daoism• Legalism• I Ching• yin and yang• Qin dynasty• Shi Huangdi• autocracyMAIN IDEAWHY IT MATTERS NOWThe social disorder of the warring states contributed to Chinese philosophy and unification.The people, events, and ideas that shaped China’s early history continue to influence China’s role in today’s world.Assessment
20 An Empire Unifies China 4 4 HOME4An EmpireUnifies ChinaSection4Assessment1. Look at the graphic to help organize your thoughts. Explain how the chaos of the warring states affected Chinese philosophy, politics, and the growth of cities.Chaos of the warring statesPhilosophyPoliticsCitiesConfucius, the Legalists, and Laozi offered solutions to the chaos.Shi Huangdi took harsh steps to impose unity and stability.People moved to them for protection.continued . . .
21 An Empire Unifies China 4 4 HOME4An EmpireUnifies ChinaSection4Assessment2. In 1776, the American Declaration of Independence declared that “all men are created equal.” How would followers of the three philosophical traditions in China react to that statement? THINK ABOUT• their views on equality• views on opposition to governmentANSWERConfucius would reject the statement because he tried to restore an unequal social order.Legalists might have objected for justifying opposition to government.Laozi might have agreed, believing that governments tend to enforce inequality.Possible Responses:continued . . .
22 An Empire Unifies China 4 4 HOME4An EmpireUnifies ChinaSection4Assessment3. Compare and contrast the monumental projects of the Persian Royal Road and the Great Wall of China. Explain their purposes, how they changed the environment, and how they affected the peoples living there.ANSWERPossible Responses:• Royal Road—built to improve communication and transportation, connected peoples and regions• Great Wall—built to prevent attacks by nomads, helped define borders, helped unify people, established barrier where no natural barrier had beenEnd of Section 4