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The Birth of Modernity? Part II: Freedom of Conscience in the European Reformations, c.1500- 1700.

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Presentation on theme: "The Birth of Modernity? Part II: Freedom of Conscience in the European Reformations, c.1500- 1700."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Birth of Modernity? Part II: Freedom of Conscience in the European Reformations, c

2 Outline and Key Terms I.The Early Reformations II.Europe in the Confessional Age III.Self-determination, toleration, and modernity

3 Definitions reformare (lat.) – to transform, re-shape, restore Why the Reformation? Significance for early modern Europe? – Permanent division in western Christianity – Religious conflict and warfare – The growth of state power A Luther Bible (The Complete Holy Scripture in German), 1534

4 Historiography Max Weber ( ) Famous for his concept of the Protestant ethic, Explaining the rapid economic and social advancement of northern Europe Weber linked the Protestant ethos to the birth of modern society – Entzauberung (disenchantment) Above: Max Weber ( ) Right: The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism (1905)

5 Reformation Europe Confession: a religious creed or statement of faith

6 Criticism of the Church Problem: – The Church a bastion of power and wealth in the Renaissance centuries… – ….. by 1500, many people dissatisfied with the worldliness (i.e. corruption) of the Roman Church Responses: – Widespread anti-clericalism – Protests and rebellions – Moving outside the Church (the Devotio Moderna movement) – Criticizing the Church from within (Christian Humanists) The Drummer of Niklashausen - visionary Hans Böhm preaching an uprising against monks and priests, 1476

7 Ad fontes re-applied Christian Humanism – A contradiction in terms? The ad fontes method applied to Christian matters – Scripture – Canon Law (church law) Christian humanists used Petrarchs method to critique Church doctrine and tradition The Pope selling Indulgences, woodcut by Lucas Cranach the Elder (1521)

8 Martin Luther ( ) Born in Eisleben, 1483 – Original Career goals? Conversion Experience, 1505 Monastic Life ( ) – Pilgrimage to Rome, 1510 Criticizes Roman Church leadership: – Ninety-Five Theses Against Indulgences (1517) – To the Christian Nobility of the German Nation (1520) – The Babylonian Captivity of the Church (1520) – The Freedom of A Christian (1520) Teachings: Sola Scriptura – The Bible as the only authority! The priesthood of all believers Christian freedom Luther as Augustinian Monk (engraving by Lucas Cranach, 1520)

9 Break with the Church Luthers writings threaten Roman Church authority Luther prosecuted – June 1519 – the Leipzig Disputation against Johannes Eck – Pope Leo X threatens Luther with excommunication – 1521 – Luther judged at Diet of Worms, excommunicated and made an outlaw – Luther claims that an individual Christians freedom of conscience permits him to disobey worldly authority!! Luther Before the Diet of Worms, by Anton Alexander von Werner ( )

10 From Reform to Reformation Reformation = reform movement becomes a political phenomenon The implications of Luthers movement Many princes and Imperial Cities adopt the Reformation…. …but the Emperor and other princes remain loyal to the Roman Church!! Confessional Age Europe ( )

11 The Reformation in England Henry VIII (Tudor), King of England (r ) Succession problem (from 1525) Known as Henrys Great Matter Solution – a papal annulment from Pope Clement VII (?) Cardinal Thomas Wolsey sent to Pope Clement VII to annul Henrys marriage Chief Minister Thomas Cromwell suggests that Henry take over as head of the Church in England ! Henry issues the Act of Supremacy (November 1534) – Act of Parliament making the king the sole head of the church in England Above: Queen Catherine, by Lucas Hornebolte; Left above: Henry VIII, by Hans Holbein the Younger (1537) Left: Sir Thomas More, by Holbein ( )

12 The Swiss Reformation Turning Swiss - Historian Thomas A. Brady on the Swiss model of reform. Debate in many south German Cities – Lutheran or Swiss reform model?

13 The Reformed Tradition (Calvinism) John Calvin ( ) Born Jean Cauvin in Picardie, France (1509) Studied law at Paris and Orleans ( ) Calvin moves to Basel, Switzerland Writes Institutes of the Christian Religion (1536) Moves to Geneva, presents his model for religious reform to city council Geneva becomes a Protestant Rome Sin and heresy prosecuted by law Geneva-trained pastors spread Calvinism in France and Germany! John Calvin, by Hans Holbein

14 The Confessional Age When? The 16 th and 17 th centuries Milestones: – The Edict of Worms (1521) – The Augsburg Confession (1530) – The Religious Peace of Augsburg (1555) – The Peace of Westphalia (1648) What? A new era of competing religious creeds The European Wars of Religion – German Peasants War ( ) – Schmalkaldic War in Germany ( ) – Wars of Religion in France ( ) – Dutch Eighty Years War ( ) – The Thirty Years War ( ) Legacy for the early-modern state? Emperor Charles V at the Battle of Mühlberg, by Titian (1548)

15 Religious War in Germany The Reformation divides the Empire – The Protestation (Speyer, 1529) and Augsburg Confession (Augsburg, 1530) Protestant princes form a defensive alliance at Schmalkalden, Feb 1531 – The Schmalkaldic League meets annually – Schmalkaldic Articles issued 1537 The Schmalkaldic War, Catholic Emperor Charles V defeats the Lutheran princes! – Battle of Mühlberg (Saxony), 24 April 1547 Top Left: Philip II, Landgrave of Hesse ( ) Top Right: Johann Friedrich I, Elector of Saxony, by Lucas Cranach the Younger (1537) Above: Charles V, by Titian (1548)

16 Toleration in Germany German protestant princes make new alliance with Henry II of France! Charles agrees to the Treaty of Passau (1552) – Guarantees toleration of German Lutheranism The Religious Peace of Augsburg (1555) – Cuius regio, eius religio Lutheranism as defined by the Augsburg Confession officially becomes a legal religion (in the Holy Roman Empire) Title page of The Religious Peace of Augsburg (Mainz, 1555)

17 War and Peace in France Persecution of French Protestants – The Massacre of Vassy (1562) – The St. Bartholomews Day Massacre (1572) The Wars of Religion, – Nobility divided by religion Civil war resolved by victories of Huguenot leader Henry of Navarre (Bourbon) – Converts to Catholicism, 1593 – Paris is Worth A Mass Royal toleration for Huguenots – the Edict of Nantes (April, 1598) Top: Henry IV, King of France, by Frans Porbus (1610) Bottom: The Edict of Nantes (with royal seal)

18 The St. Bartholomews Day Massacre The Massacre of St. Bartholomews Day, by Francois Dubois (c )

19 The Dutch Revolt 80 years of conflict! – 1565: Spanish King Philip II rejects religious toleration for the Spanish Netherlands – Dutch Protestants revolt Philips response – send a Spanish army – Duke of Alba invades Belgium The Spanish Fury Dutch resurgence - The Dutch Republic declared in 1581 King Philip III and the Twelve Years Truce (signed April, 1609) What can we conclude about the origins of religious toleration? Above: Dominions of Philip II in 1580 Left: William, Prince of Orange, by Adriaen Thomasz

20 Reform and modernity? Does the Reformation create a modern worldview? Luthers emphasis on individual salvation, right to freedom of conscience (self- determination) Tudor reform (Henry VIII) – the state takes control of the church! Zwingli and Calvin condemn idolatry and superstition Wars of religion produce religious toleration Does the Reformation create a modern society? Growth of state power over the church Multiple legal religions (after 1555): What did religious toleration mean in the 1500s and 1600s? A tolerant society?

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