2The Protestant Reformation During the 1500s, a unified "Germany" did not exist. Like Italy, it was made up of many small, independent states, together known as the Holy Roman Empire.In Rome, Pope Leo X was overseeing the rebuilding of St. Peter's Basilica.He sent a monk named Johann Tetzel to raise money in the northern German states.Tetzel asked the people to buy indulgences, or pardons from punishment for sin.This outraged northern humanists.
4Martin Luther A monk of the Roman Catholic Church Criticized Tetzel's selling of indulgencesWrote a list of 95 theses (ideas) criticizing the pope's power and the church's wealth
5According to a contemporary historian, Luther posted these 95 theses on a church door at a university. A quote: "(32) Those who believed that they can be certain of their salvation because they have indulgence letters will be eternally damned, together with their teachers."
6Martin Luther believed that salvation came not from a person's actions, but from inner faith in Christ.He claimed that the Bible was the sole religious authority, not popes and bishops. He believed in a "priesthood of all believers."He used the printing press to spread his ideas. News quickly spread across Europe about a monk who had publicly challenged the church.
7Break with the ChurchLuther probably never wanted to leave the Roman Catholic Church, but the church responded by throwing him out. In 1521 Pope Leo X excommunicated Martin Luther.
8The Holy Roman Emperor, Charles V, summoned Luther to a meeting called the Imperial Diet, at a city called Worms.At the Diet of Worms, the emperor ordered Luther to back down from his ideas. Luther refused.
9The emperor declared him an outlaw and banned the printing and sale of his works. However, because of the political situation in the empire, Charles V could not enforce this. Local princes protested against Charles V's actions. Therefore Luther's followers came to be called "Protestants."Protected by Frederick the Wise in his home state of Saxony, Luther continued his work and translated the Bible into German.
10Lutheranism:Based on the "priesthood of all believers," Lutheran ministers had less power than Catholic priests.Originally the followers of Martin Luther.Supported by the Protestant princes in Germany. Charles V agreed to a compromise with the princes in 1555 known as the Peace of Augsburg, which allowed each prince to choose the religion for his state. Most chose Lutheranism.
11Sects: "Sect" means division Many sects were small and did not have clear-cut rules, membership, or leadershipHundreds formed in the 1520s and 1530s
12The Anglican ChurchAlso known as the Church of England. Similar to the Catholic Church, although it adopted some Protestant ideas.Henry VIII caused the break between England and the Roman Catholic Church because they would not allow him to divorce his current wife, Catherine of Aragon.Catherine of Aragon had not produced a son to succeed Henry. He also hoped to marry Anne Boleyn, a lady-in-waiting at the court.
13In 1530, when Pope Clement VII denied the divorce, Henry claimed that he, not the pope, was the head of the English church. Parliament made this law in
14CalvinismSimilar to Lutheranism, but emphasized predestination - that certain people, "the elect" were chosen by God for salvation long ago.Begun as a church by John Calvin in Switzerland
15In 1536, he published The Institutes of Christian Religion to explain exactly what Christians should believe on ever major religious question. The Calvinists now had a code that united and strengthened them.
16Counter-ReformationIn 1545 Pope Paul III called a council (The Council of Trent) to clarify Catholic beliefs.The Council stated:Salvation came from church ceremonies as well as individual faithGod should be worshiped with ceremony and splendorEvery person has free will
17The council also worked to end the sale of indulgences and other abuses within the clergy.
18Jesuits became the most effective agents in spreading Catholicism. Jesuits were the "Society of Jesus"Pope Paul III recognized the Jesuits as an official order of the Catholic ChurchIn Europe their preaching slowed the spread of ProtestantismThey traveled as far as China and JapanThey combined humanist values with Catholic doctrine to produce educated, dedicated supporters of the church.