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3.02c.  During the 1500s, a unified "Germany" did not exist. Like Italy, it was made up of many small, independent states, together known as the Holy.

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Presentation on theme: "3.02c.  During the 1500s, a unified "Germany" did not exist. Like Italy, it was made up of many small, independent states, together known as the Holy."— Presentation transcript:

1 3.02c

2  During the 1500s, a unified "Germany" did not exist. Like Italy, it was made up of many small, independent states, together known as the Holy Roman Empire.  In Rome, Pope Leo X was overseeing the rebuilding of St. Peter's Basilica.  He sent a monk named Johann Tetzel to raise money in the northern German states.  Tetzel asked the people to buy indulgences, or pardons from punishment for sin.  This outraged northern humanists.

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4  A monk of the Roman Catholic Church  Criticized Tetzel's selling of indulgences  Wrote a list of 95 theses (ideas) criticizing the pope's power and the church's wealth

5  According to a contemporary historian, Luther posted these 95 theses on a church door at a university. A quote: "(32) Those who believed that they can be certain of their salvation because they have indulgence letters will be eternally damned, together with their teachers."

6  Martin Luther believed that salvation came not from a person's actions, but from inner faith in Christ.  He claimed that the Bible was the sole religious authority, not popes and bishops. He believed in a "priesthood of all believers."  He used the printing press to spread his ideas. News quickly spread across Europe about a monk who had publicly challenged the church.

7  Luther probably never wanted to leave the Roman Catholic Church, but the church responded by throwing him out. In 1521 Pope Leo X excommunicated Martin Luther.

8  The Holy Roman Emperor, Charles V, summoned Luther to a meeting called the Imperial Diet, at a city called Worms.  At the Diet of Worms, the emperor ordered Luther to back down from his ideas. Luther refused.

9  The emperor declared him an outlaw and banned the printing and sale of his works. However, because of the political situation in the empire, Charles V could not enforce this. Local princes protested against Charles V's actions. Therefore Luther's followers came to be called "Protestants."  Protected by Frederick the Wise in his home state of Saxony, Luther continued his work and translated the Bible into German.

10  Based on the "priesthood of all believers," Lutheran ministers had less power than Catholic priests.  Originally the followers of Martin Luther.  Supported by the Protestant princes in Germany. Charles V agreed to a compromise with the princes in 1555 known as the Peace of Augsburg, which allowed each prince to choose the religion for his state. Most chose Lutheranism.

11  "Sect" means division  Many sects were small and did not have clear-cut rules, membership, or leadership  Hundreds formed in the 1520s and 1530s

12  Also known as the Church of England. Similar to the Catholic Church, although it adopted some Protestant ideas.  Henry VIII caused the break between England and the Roman Catholic Church because they would not allow him to divorce his current wife, Catherine of Aragon.  Catherine of Aragon had not produced a son to succeed Henry. He also hoped to marry Anne Boleyn, a lady-in-waiting at the court.

13  In 1530, when Pope Clement VII denied the divorce, Henry claimed that he, not the pope, was the head of the English church. Parliament made this law in 1531.

14  Similar to Lutheranism, but emphasized predestination - that certain people, "the elect" were chosen by God for salvation long ago.  Begun as a church by John Calvin in Switzerland

15  In 1536, he published The Institutes of Christian Religion to explain exactly what Christians should believe on ever major religious question. The Calvinists now had a code that united and strengthened them.

16  In 1545 Pope Paul III called a council (The Council of Trent) to clarify Catholic beliefs.  The Council stated: ◦ Salvation came from church ceremonies as well as individual faith ◦ God should be worshiped with ceremony and splendor ◦ Every person has free will

17  The council also worked to end the sale of indulgences and other abuses within the clergy.

18  Jesuits became the most effective agents in spreading Catholicism. ◦ Jesuits were the "Society of Jesus" ◦ Pope Paul III recognized the Jesuits as an official order of the Catholic Church ◦ In Europe their preaching slowed the spread of Protestantism ◦ They traveled as far as China and Japan ◦ They combined humanist values with Catholic doctrine to produce educated, dedicated supporters of the church.


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