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Reformation Europe 1500-1600. Catholic Church Hierarchy:

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Presentation on theme: "Reformation Europe 1500-1600. Catholic Church Hierarchy:"— Presentation transcript:

1 Reformation Europe

2 Catholic Church Hierarchy:

3 Background Vocabulary: Protestant Someone who protested the Catholic Church Reformation When people demand changes Indulgences Certificates that take away sin Church was selling forgiveness to take away sin

4 What is the Protestant Reformation? The religious reform movement that divided the western (European) church into Catholic and Protestant groups. The Protestant Reformation had major religious, economic, political & social effects on Europe.

5 Early Attempts at Church Reform Major goal was to reform the Catholic Church Erasmus - “philosophy of Christ” stressed the inwardness of religious feeling not external practices The Praise of Folly (1509) criticized monks and popes Luther’s ideas based on Erasmus

6 Causes of the Reformation 1. “Renaissance popes” were concerned with worldly matters more than spiritual matters. 2. Wealthy merchants challenged the Church (usury). 3. German & English nobility disliked Italian domination of the Church.

7 Causes of the Reformation 4. The Catholic Church’s great political power and the wealth caused conflict. 5. Church corruption and the sale of indulgences were widespread and caused conflict. Indulgences Sale of forgiveness of sin

8 Martin Luther ( ) Monk and professor at University of Wittenberg Bothered by Catholic view of salvation both faith & good works were needed to get salvation Through his study of the Bible, Luther came to the conclusion that only faith was necessary: SALVATION BY FAITH

9 95 Theses October 31, 1517 Luther sent a list of 95 theses (listing of abuses) in the Catholic Church especially the sale of indulgences Nailed list to church door

10 95 Theses Thousands of copies were printed and spread to all parts of Germany Pope Leo X initially ignored Luther’s theses

11 Breaking with Rome In 1520, Luther called for the German princes to overthrow the Catholic Church in Germany & establish a reformed German church Christian humanists broke with Luther Pope Leo X excommunicated Luther in January 1521

12 Breaking with Rome Diet of Worms: Diet – council Worms – town in Germany Luther refused to recant Holy Roman Emperor Charles V issued the Edict of Worms in 1521 Luther declared a heretic & outlaw

13 Breaking with Rome Luther was protected by Frederick of Saxony & put into hiding at Wartburg Castle while in hiding, he translated the New Testament into German People could read in their own language

14 Lutheranism Luther gained the support of many German princes The princes converted to Protestantism ended papal authority in their states

15 Lutheranism Birth of the 1 st Protestant Church Central beliefs: Justification/salvation by faith (NOT good works) Bible is the ultimate authority (NOT the Pope) All humans are equal before God (Laity = Clergy) Community of believers, not hierarchy of clergy

16 The Reformation in the German States The success of the Protestant Reformation was tied to political affairs Charles V ruled an immense empire and wanted to keep under control of his family, the Hapsburgs he wanted to keep it Catholic

17 The Reformation in the German States War between Protestants and Catholics resulted in devastating wars – Thirty Years Wars

18 Peace of Augsburg, 1555 Peace of Augsburg (1555) allowed the rulers of the German states to choose Catholicism or Protestantism for citizens No religious freedom or toleration

19 John Calvin ( ) Similar beliefs as Luther emphasized all-powerful nature of God Calvin believed in predestination Predestination –God determines each person’s fate “the elect” – those chosen for heaven Faith revealed by living righteous life Expanded Protestantism

20 French Wars of Religion Calvinism and Catholicism became militant religions

21 French Wars of Religion Many powerful French nobles became Protestants called Huguenots Edict of Nantes (1598) The Catholic Monarchy granted Protestant Huguenots freedom of worship

22 French Wars of Religion Cardinal Richelieu changed the focus of the Thirty Years War from religious → political

23 Reformation in England English Reformation was rooted in politics, not religion

24 Reformation in England Henry VIII Dismissed the authority of the Pope in Rome Wanted a male heir to throne Divorced and remarried; broke with the Catholic Church Formed the Church of England Elizabeth I ( ) ended blood shed and united the Britain under the Anglican Church

25 The Catholic-Counter Reformation Catholic Reformation mounted reforms to reassert its authority 3 Phases – Council of Trent – Reforms Jesuits – missionaries Inquisition – Church court

26 Council of Trent Reaffirmed traditional Catholic teachings in opposition to Protestant beliefs such as: Salvation source of religious truth Sacraments Celibacy Indulgences Establishment of seminaries

27 The Catholic Reformation Society of Jesus (Jesuits) founded to spread Catholic doctrine around the world Doctrine = key beliefs

28 The Catholic Reformation Inquisition Established to reinforce Catholic doctrine Council of 6 Cardinals Empowered to investigate, try & execute people for heresy Pope Paul IV strengthened the Inquisition


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