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Martin Luther and the German Reformation

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1 Martin Luther and the German Reformation


3 Social and Political conflicts that existed in W
Social and Political conflicts that existed in W. Europe on the eve of the Reformation Political Conflicts of late 15th early 16th c. a)_____________vs________________ b)_____________vs________________ Social conflicts of late 15th early 16th c. a) b) c)

4 I. Criticisms against the Catholic Church? DQ #1
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

5 II. The Church is enjoying 2 kinds of immunity:
1. Immunity of 2. Immunity of

6 Why wasn’t the Church able to suppress dissent as it had earlier?
DQ #2 & #3: Why wasn’t the Church able to suppress dissent as it had earlier? 1. 2. 3.

7 III. Overview Why did the Reformation start in Germany? DQ #4 a) b)

8 What were Luther’s 2 main criticisms?
DQ#5 a) b)

9 An Aside Who was John Tetzel?
Luther encountered him selling indulgences in Wittenberg. Luther was appalled by Tetzel’s “marketing” tactics. Luther believed that salvation could not be sold by the Pope. It was a FREE gift given by God.

10 3. Justification by Faith Alone (Luther’s contention)
Why would the Church have a problem with this?

11 For discussion only: Why does Luther want the Bible in the vernacular?
Who makes doctrine in the Catholic Church? Is the Pope “infallible”? Then WHO should guide the people, according to Luther?

12 4. The Bible and the 7 sacraments
Luther maintained there were only HOW many sacraments? Why? What are they?

13 Thesis (1515) a) b) Huss and Wycliffe?

14 Sum-Up: Luther’s Key Beliefs
Salvation is by faith alone (not good works) The Bible is the only authority for Christian life. (You know…traditional Church teachings, papal interpretation, only 2 sacraments mentioned in the Bible). The Church consists of a priesthood of all believers. (Luther insisted that because all Christians are spiritually equal, the church consists of the entire community of the Christian faithful). All vocations have equal merit. Church = monastic life was superior to secular life Luther = all honest work has equal merit. People should serve God in his/her individual calling. (want to be a teacher? Anyone?) Luther abolished monasteries and convents – declaring the clergy should marry. (As he did…a “nun on the run”)

15 IV. Charles V He is a “Habsburg”
Grandson of Maximilian of Austria (and Emperor of the HRE) and Ferdinand of Spain When his father dies, he inherits his father’s territories in the “low countries” When Ferd dies, he becomes King of Spain When Max dies, he inherits the Habsburgs lands in Austria.

16 Charles V

17 V. Charles and the HRE It was expected he would be the new HRE Emperor. WHY? But… He had competition from __________, who also had the support of Pope Leo X. Francis I used promises and bribes to win favor of the ____________, but with backing from the wealthy __________family, Charles was elected Emperor in June, 1519.

18 VI. Charles V’s territories & beliefs
He rules over a lot ! ! Including…. He is one ___________________ man. Why is he upset with Luther?

19 NOTE: Print-out handout “Martin Luther and Lutheranism” from my blog 
VII. Debate with John Eck, Luther’s Excommunication, the Diet of Worms and Edict of Worms NOTE: Print-out handout “Martin Luther and Lutheranism” from my blog  Come to class Friday with a familiarity of: Luther’s 3 famous pamphlets Diet of Worms Edict of Worms Diet of Augsburg Schmalkaldic League Peasants Revolt

20 VII. Debate with John Eck, Luther’s Excommunication, the Diet of Worms and Edict of Worms
In the same month that Charles is elected in 1519, Luther enters into a debate in Leipzig with professor John Eck. a) Luther challenged the infallibility of the_______. b) claimed scripture was the supreme ___________. c) defended some of the teachings of ______.

21 VIII. Luther’s Excommunication
Luther presents his three pamphlets June 1520 – Pope Leo X condemns Luther for _________and gives him 60 days to retract. 3) January 1521 – Pope Leo X issues the final bull of excommunication – Luther is now a ____________ ___________.

22 IX. Diet of Worms Charles V presides Luther is ordered to recant
Luther requests 1 day to think about it. He refuses to recant. Why?

23 X. Edict of Worms Luther placed under imperial ban
He is a __________ outlaw and a ____________ outlaw. 3) This edict (issued by Charles V) permitted anyone to kill Luther without consequence.

24 XI. Charles V Preoccupied. Why?
Turkish threat in the East and Wars between Spain and France over disputed territories in Italy Result? Charles gives German princes freedom to enforce Edict of Worms which….

25 XII. Luther’s 3 Pamphlets
Address to the Christian Nobility of the German Nations. a) Urged German princes to b) He attacked Church c) asserted laymen had the right to The Babylonian Captivity of the Church a) attacked the 7 b) rejects transubstantiation c) laity now allowed to drink from Freedom of a Christian a) written for the _____________ b) taught doctrine of justification by ______ alone

26 XIII. Peasants’ Revolt German peasants originally supported Luther because? They revolt against their __________and seek Luther’s support. Luther’s response? Consequences: a) strengthened the authority of German nobility b) Lutheranism became allied with the established political order controlled by the German nobility.

27 Was Luther a Social Revolutionary?
Yes or No ? He was a social ________________. Wanted to maintain the status ______. Argued political authority rested with_____.

28 XIV. The Schmalkaldic League
Formed by Lutheran princes Philip of Hesse and John Frederick, Elector of Saxony in 1531 Pledged to defend each other if attacked by ___________________ In 1532, the League allies with ________ and in 1538 with ____________. League helped spread Lutheranism throughout N. Germany AND confiscated ______land.

29 In 1544 Charles made peace with France, which agrees to end its alliance with_______________.

30 “Cuius region, eius religio”
XVI. Peace of Augsburg Officially ends the wars between the HRE, France and League KEY: Allowed German princes to select their own ____________. “Cuius region, eius religio” 3) KEY: Regional power vs. Central Power

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