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A.P. UNITED STATES HISTORY U.S. History First Half Review.

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Presentation on theme: "A.P. UNITED STATES HISTORY U.S. History First Half Review."— Presentation transcript:

1 A.P. UNITED STATES HISTORY U.S. History First Half Review

2 I. Importance/Emphasis on Religion Protestant Reformation Roman Catholic Church Petrine Theory Slide 19 “Bishop of Rome” Powers of the Pope Excommunication Interdict Martin Luther Slide 20 “Faith vs. Works” “the just shall live by faith” Indulgences Johann Tetzel

3 I. Importance/Emphasis on Religion Mass Transubstantiation Consubstantiation Ninety-Five Theses Wittenberg Diet of Worms Excommunication “Here I make my stand, I cannot recant. God be with me.” Protestant Lutheran John Calvin Presbyterian Church

4 I. Importance/Emphasis on Religion Predestination “the elect” Institutes of the Christian Religion Henry VIII Slide 21 The Divorce Catherine of Aragon Annulment Spain Anglican (Church of England) Episcopal Counter-Reformation Jesuits “Teaching” Priests

5 I. Importance/Emphasis on Religion Jesuit Colleges Loyola College Spring Hill College Inquisition Slide 22 Heresy Puritans Moral Codes Threat to the Social Order Critical of Church/State Theocracy Pilgrims Plymouth Rock Massachusetts Bay Colony

6 I. Importance/Emphasis on Religion John Winthrop “city on a hill” Salem “Jeremiads” Witchcraft Tituba Spectral Evidence “Outlivers” Slide 23 Demise of the Puritans Yankees The Great Awakening Frontier Revivalism Enlightenment

7 I. Importance/Emphasis on Religion Faith vs. Reason Alexis de Tocqueville Democracy in America America is unlike any European nation due to their reliance upon religion

8 II. The French Revolution Old Regime Bourbon Dynasty Louis XIV “the Sun King” “I am touched” Versailles Slide 24 Three Estates First-Clergy (Tax Free) Second-Nobility Third-Commoners (96% of population) Bankruptcy Taxation

9 II. The French Revolution First/Second Estates were exempt Revolt Against Louis XVI Marie Antoinette 14 July 1789 Slide 25 Declaration of the Rights of Man “Unholy Trinity” Robespierre Danton Marat “the body politic”

10 II. The French Revolution Anything harmful must be purged First Estate Second Estate Reign of Terror “purging the body politic” Louis Guillotine Slide ,000 Fear of Democracy Napoleon Bonaparte The Directory Napoleon I Slide 27

11 II. The French Revolution Napoleonic Wars Louisiana Purchase 828,000 Square Miles (3¢/Acre) Slide 28 Napoleon Invades Russia Slide 29 Napoleon Abdicates Elba The Hundred Days Waterloo (June 1815) St. Helena’s Island Louis XVII Congress of Vienna

12 III. Jefferson vs. Hamilton Slide 30 Revolutionary Ideas Egalitarianism Gender Roles George Washington Deference Thomas Jefferson Alexander Hamilton Jefferson’s Ideology Democracy Nobility of All Men Strict Construction Pro-Agrarian Pro-France Democratic- Republican Party

13 III. Jefferson vs. Hamilton Hamilton’s Ideology Republican Oligarchic Depravity of Man Loose Construction Pro-Industry Tariffs Pro-Britain Federalist Party Election of 1800 “Revolution of 1800” Twelfth Amendment 11 July 1804 Weehawken, NJ Federalist Judges John Marshall

14 IV. Westward Expansion Post-Revolutionary War (Ohio River Valley to the Western Frontier) Slide 31 Louisiana Purchase Slide 32 Missouri Compromise 36° 30’ Slide 33 Compromise of 1850 Slide 34 One Slave; One Free Kansas-Nebraska Act (1854) Slide 35

15 IV. Westward Expansion Intercontinental Railroad Francis Parkman “most fundamental aspect of U.S. History” Cause of American Civil War????

16 V. Slavery “The Peculiar Institution” North: Anti-Slavery Not conducive to Factories Irish South: Pro-Slavery Untrained Labor the Planter Aristocracy Controversies Ostend Manifesto Acquire Cuba at “any cost” Defeated due to fear of spread of slavery

17 V. Slavery Wilmot Proviso No Slavery in any territory acquired from Mexico Death of Whig Party Conscience Whigs Cotton Whigs John Brown Slide 36 Harper’s Ferry Prophecy Ralph Waldo Emerson: “one day the gallows will be as hallowed as the cross”

18 V. Slavery Election of 1860 Slide 37 Lincoln Elected Did not appear on any Southern ballot Lower South Secedes South Carolina U.S. Forts in Southern Territory Fort Sumter Bombing of Fort Sumter Upper South Secedes Slide 38

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