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The Reformation Review. The Reformation ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________.

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Presentation on theme: "The Reformation Review. The Reformation ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Reformation Review

2 The Reformation

3 ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ Questions Notes: Reformation 1. Causes of the Reformation

4 “The Pope is lower than God but higher than man, judges all but is judged by no one.” Pope Innocent III

5 Causes of the Reformation powerful popes spent money on art and wars

6 John Tetzel

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8 illiterate priests were often immoral secular Renaissance ideas challenge church authority Causes of the Reformation

9 ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ Questions Notes: Reformation 1. Causes of the Reformation A. secular Renaissance ideas challenge church authority B. powerful popes spent money on art and wars C. illiterate priests were often immoral

10 Martin Luther

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14 The Spread of Lutheranism

15 ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ Questions Notes: Reformation 1. Causes of the Reformation A. secular Renaissance ideas challenge church authority B. powerful popes spent money on art and wars C. illiterate priests were often immoral 2. Reformation A. Martin Luther leads change i – posts 95 Theses criticizing indulgences ii. printing press spread 95 Theses around Europe iii. encouraged people to read bible iv. Pope Leo X excommunicated Luther v. Luther started a new church, Lutherans

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18 ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ Questions Notes: Reformation 1. Causes of the Reformation A. secular Renaissance ideas challenge church authority B. powerful popes spent money on art and wars C. illiterate priests were often immoral 2. Reformation A. Martin Luther leads change i – posts 95 Theses criticizing indulgences ii. printing press spread 95 Theses around Europe iii. encouraged people to read bible iv. Pope Leo X excommunicated Luther v. Luther started a new church, Lutherans B. King Henry VIII starts Anglican Church (Church of England)

19 Calvin’s World in the 16 c

20 ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ Questions Notes: Reformation 1. Causes of the Reformation A. secular Renaissance ideas challenge church authority B. powerful popes spent money on art and wars C. illiterate priests were often immoral 2. Reformation A. Martin Luther leads change i – posts 95 Theses criticizing indulgences ii. printing press spread 95 Theses around Europe iii. encouraged people to read bible iv. Pope Leo X excommunicated Luther v. Luther started a new church, Lutherans B. King Henry VIII starts Anglican Church (Church of England) C. French theologian John Calvin develops protestant ideology - predestination

21 Europe Starts Religious Wars The Thirty-Year War ( ) German princes use Reformation to get independence from Rome and from the Holy Roman Empire The war is extremely destructive and soon involves almost all of Europe

22 Dutch persecution of Anabaptists (Mennonites) St. Bartholomew’s Day Massacre

23 ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ Questions Notes: Reformation 1. Causes of the Reformation A. secular Renaissance ideas challenge church authority B. powerful popes spent money on art and wars C. illiterate priests were often immoral 2. Reformation A. Martin Luther leads change i – posts 95 Theses criticizing indulgences ii. printing press spread 95 Theses around Europe iii. encouraged people to read bible iv. Pope Leo X excommunicated Luther v. Luther started a new church, Lutherans B. King Henry VIII starts Anglican Church (Church of England) C. French theologian John Calvin develops protestant ideology - predestination 3. Effects of the Reformation A. religious wars broke out across Europe B. both Protestants and Catholics improve education

24 Council of Trent

25 The Counter-Reformation Ignatius of Loyola started the Jesuit Holy Order Catholic Church reformed some of its corruption (such as banning indulgences) reaffirmed basic tenants of Catholic faith (saints, pilgrimages, salvation through good deeds, etc.) rejected addressed political power

26 ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ Questions Notes: Reformation 1. Causes of the Reformation A. secular Renaissance ideas challenge church authority B. powerful popes spent money on art and wars C. illiterate priests were often immoral 2. Reformation B. King Henry VIII starts Anglican Church (Church of England) C. French theologian John Calvin develops protestant ideology 3. Effects of the Reformation A. religious wars broke out across Europe B. both Protestants and Catholics improve education C. Catholic Church reforms itself i. Ignatius of Loyola leads Catholic Reformation ii. Council of Trent – meeting that made church doctrine D. Catholic Church lost political and moral authority E. led to monarchs and states gaining power

27 Scientific Revolution Review

28 ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ Questions Notes: Scientific Revolution

29 A g e o f E x p l o r a t i o n Reformation Renaissance Scientific Revolution

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31 ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ Questions Notes: Scientific Revolution 1.Roots of the Scientific Revolution a. Renaissance – scholars studied classical ideas of science b. Age of Exploration – contact with new people and new ideas c. Reformation – ended church control of education

32 200 BC Ancient Greeks The Scientific Revolution Ptolemy ancient Greek philosopher started the idea of geocentric universe

33 200 BC The Scientific Revolution Middle Ages

34 200 BC The Scientific Revolution Renaissance Nicolaus Copernicus (1543)

35 ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ Questions Notes: Scientific Revolution 1.Roots of the Scientific Revolution a. Renaissance – scholars studied classical ideas of science b. Age of Exploration – contact with new people and new ideas c. Reformation – ended church control of education 2.The Scientific Revolution a. scholars observed natural world and questioned old beliefs b. Nicolaus Copernicus – sun at center of universe

36 On 31 October 1992, Pope John Paul II expressed regret for how the Galileo affair was handled, and officially conceded that the Earth was not stationary. Galileo Galilei

37 ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ Questions Notes: Scientific Revolution 1.Roots of the Scientific Revolution a. Renaissance – scholars studied classical ideas of science b. Age of Exploration – contact with new people and new ideas c. Reformation – ended church control of education 2.The Scientific Revolution a. scholars observed natural world and questioned old beliefs b. Nicolaus Copernicus – sun at center of universe c. Galileo Galilei – built telescope and observed the universe

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39 Francis Bacon – encouraged empiricism (experiments and conclusions) Rene Descartes – used mathematics and logic Isaac Newton – theory of gravity Leaders of the Scientific Revolution

40 ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ Questions Notes: Scientific Revolution 1.Roots of the Scientific Revolution a. Renaissance – scholars studied classical ideas of science b. Age of Exploration – contact with new people and new ideas c. Reformation – ended church control of education 2.The Scientific Revolution a. scholars observed natural world and questioned old beliefs b. Nicolaus Copernicus – sun at center of universe c. Galileo Galilei – built telescope and observed the universe d. Scientific Method – hypothesis, experiment, observation, and conclusion e. Francis Bacon – encouraged empiricism (experiments and conclusions) f. Rene Descartes – used mathematics and logic g. Isaac Newton – theory of gravity

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43 ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________ Questions Notes: Scientific Revolution 1.Roots of the Scientific Revolution 2.The Scientific Revolution a. scholars observed natural world and questioned old beliefs b. Nicolaus Copernicus – sun at center of universe c. Galileo Galilei – built telescope and observed the universe d. Scientific Method – hypothesis, experiment, observation, and conclusion e. Francis Bacon – encouraged empiricism (experiments and conclusions) f. Rene Descartes – used mathematics and logic g. Isaac Newton – theory of gravity 3.Effects of the Scientific Revolution a. a new way of looking at the world b. “tools” developed for studying people and society c. Europeans make advances in medicine and science


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