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Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004 Development Through the Lifespan Chapter 18 Emotional and Social Development in Late Adulthood This multimedia product and.

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Presentation on theme: "Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004 Development Through the Lifespan Chapter 18 Emotional and Social Development in Late Adulthood This multimedia product and."— Presentation transcript:

1 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004 Development Through the Lifespan Chapter 18 Emotional and Social Development in Late Adulthood This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited by law: Any public performance or display, including transmission of any image over a network; Preparation of any derivative work, including the extraction, in whole or in part, of any images; Any rental, lease, or lending of the program.

2 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004 Erikson’s Theory: Ego Integrity versus Despair Ego Integrity Feel whole, complete, satisfied with achievements Serenity and contentment Associated with psychosocial maturity Despair Feel many decisions were wrong, but now time is too short Bitter and unaccepting of coming death Expressed as anger and contempt for others

3 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004 Peck: Three Tasks of Ego Integrity Ego differentiation versus work- role preoccupation Body transcendence versus body preoccupation Ego transcendence versus ego preoccupation

4 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004 Reminiscence and Life Review Reminiscence Telling stories about people, events, thoughts and feelings from past Self-focused: can deepen despair Other-focused: solidifies relationships Knowledge-based: helps solve problems Life Review Considering the meaning of past experiences A form of reminiscence For greater self- understanding

5 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004 Personality in Late Adulthood Secure, complex self-concept Self-acceptance Continuing from earlier life Shifting characteristics: More agreeable Less sociable Greater acceptance of change

6 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004 Spirituality and Religion in Late Adulthood Over 3/4 in U.S. say religion “very important” Over half attend services Religious involvement fairly stable throughout adulthood; some increase in later years Fowler’s Stages of Faith Development 1. Intuitive-projective 2. Mythic-literal 3. Synthetic-conventional 4. Individuative-reflective 5. Conjunctive

7 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004 Factors in Psychological Well-Being Control versus Dependency Health Poor health, depression linked Suicide risk Negative Life Changes Social Support Social Interaction

8 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004 Control and Dependency in Late Adulthood Dependency-support script Attend immediately to dependent behaviors Independence-ignore script Ignore independent behaviors Scripts work together Both reinforce dependency Make social contact less pleasant

9 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004 Social Theories of Aging Disengagement Theory Mutual withdrawal of elders and society. Activity Theory Social barriers cause declining interaction Socioemotional Selectivity Theory Social networks become more selective with age Emphasize certain functions of social contact

10 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004 Age-Related Changes in Number of Social Partners

11 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004 Social Contexts of Aging Communities Most in suburbs Minorities in cities Neighborhoods Fear of crime and victimization Housing Less like home life, harder to adjust

12 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004 Housing Arrangements in Late Adulthood Ordinary Homes Own home – preferred and most control With family Residential Communities Congregate housing Life care communities Nursing Homes

13 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004 Intimate Partnerships in Late Adulthood Marriage Satisfaction peaks in late adulthood If dissatisfied, harder for women Gay and Lesbian Partnerships Most happy, highly fulfilling

14 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004 Divorce and Widowhood Divorce Few divorces in late adulthood, but increasing More likely to remarry Widowhood Widows 1/3 of elderly Most live alone Loneliness is a problem Widowed men more likely to remarry

15 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004 Changes in Aid Among Siblings

16 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004 Friendships in Late Adulthood Friends provide: Intimacy Companionship Acceptance Link to community Help with loss Close to few, nearby friends Choose friends similar to self Sex differences continue

17 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004 Relationships with Children, Grandchildren, Great-Grandchildren Adult Children Quality of relationship affects physical, mental health More important with advanced age Grandchildren & Great- Grandchildren Half of grandchildren adults Gradually reduced contact with grandchildren Limited role with great-grandchildren

18 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004 Elder Maltreatment Physical Abuse Physical Neglect Psychological Abuse Financial Abuse

19 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004 Decision to Retire Retire Adequate retirement benefits Compelling leisure interests Low work commitment Declining health Spouse retiring Routine, boring job Keep Working Limited or no retirement benefits Few leisure interests High work commitment Good health Spouse working Flexible work schedule Pleasant, stimulating work

20 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004 Adjusting to Retirement Most people adapt well 30% adjustment difficulties Factors in adjustment Financial worries Workplace factors Sense of personal control Social support

21 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004 Leisure Activities Interests usually continue from earlier in life Many volunteer Frequency and variety drop with age Involvement in rewarding leisure linked to better health, reduced mortality Self-expression New achievements Helping others Social interactions

22 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2004 Successful Aging Minimizing losses and maximizing gains Focus less on outcomes, more on processes and reaching personal goals Some factors controllable, others not

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