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Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Chapter 14 Emotional and Social Development in Early Adulthood Exploring Lifespan.

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Presentation on theme: "Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Chapter 14 Emotional and Social Development in Early Adulthood Exploring Lifespan."— Presentation transcript:

1 Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Chapter 14 Emotional and Social Development in Early Adulthood Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk

2 Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.  Explore alternatives in:  Education  Work  Personal values and behavior  Routes to adult responsibility vary in:  Timing  Order  Develop a more complex self- concept © mimagephotography/Shutterstock Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk Emerging Adulthood

3 Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.  Explore in breadth and depth  Depth: higher in self-esteem, well- being, adjustment  Too much breadth: poor adjustment, anxiety, depression, deviant behavior  Dual-cycle model  Fluctuating between making new commitments and evaluating old ones © Zurijeta/Shutterstock Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk Identity Development in Emerging Adulthood

4 Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.  Religious practice falls in late teens and twenties: 1 in 4 U.S. 18- to 29-year-olds unaffiliated with a particular faith  Religion remains more important to U.S. young people than in other developed nations  Many construct individualized faith, weaving together diverse traditions Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk Religion in Emerging Adulthood

5 Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Figure 14.1 (Adapted from Pew Forum on Religion and Public Life, 2010.) Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk Religiosity Among Cohorts of U.S. 18- to 29-Year-Olds

6 Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.  “Generation me” controversy:  Is there increased narcissism and materialism?  Cohort evidence questions these claims  Involvement in volunteerism, community service  Voter turnout © michaeljung/Shutterstock Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk Worldview in Emerging Adulthood

7 Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.  Cultural change  Entry-level positions require more education  Wealth, longevity free young people from immediate entry to work force  Emerging adulthood largely limited to:  Middle- and high SES in industrialized nations  Wealthy, privileged few in developing countries  Some researchers question whether emerging adulthood is a distinct period Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk Cultural Change, Cultural Variation, and Emerging Adulthood

8 Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.  Resilience  Cognitive attributes  Emotional attributes  Social attributes  Social support © Andresr/Shutterstock Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk Fostering Success in Emerging Adulthood

9 Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Intimacy  Making a permanent commitment to intimate partner  Redefining identity  Secure identity associated with fidelity Isolation  Loneliness, self- absorption  State of searching Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk © AVAVA/Shutterstock Erikson’s Theory: Intimacy versus Isolation

10 Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.  Early adult transition  Dream  Women have “split dreams”  Mentor  “Age-30 transition”  Men “settle down”  Women remain unsettled  Occupational or relationship commitments © dotshock/Shutterstock Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk Levinson’s Seasons of Life

11 Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 20sIntimacy concerns 30sCareer consolidation 40sGenerativity 50s and 60s“Keepers of meaning” 70sSpirituality and reflection Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk Vailiant’s Adaptation to Life in Men

12 Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.  Age-graded expectations for life events  Less rigid than in earlier generations  Following a social clock lends confidence, contributes to social stability  Distress if not following or falling behind © chaoss/Shutterstock Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk The Social Clock

13 Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.  Most select partners similar to themselves  Gender differences:  Women: intelligence, ambition, financial status, and moral character  Men: attractiveness and domestic skills  Evolutionary perspective  Social learning view  Higher value placed on attributes that contribute to relationship satisfaction © arek_malang/Shutterstock Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk Selecting a Mate

14 Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Attachment History Working ModelAdult Relationships Secure Comfortable with intimacy; unafraid of abandonment Trust, happiness, friendship Avoidant Emphasize independence, mistrust, anxiety about closeness Jealousy, emotional distance, little physical pleasure, unrealistic beliefs Resistant Seek quick love, complete merging Jealousy, desperation, emotional highs and lows Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk Childhood Attachment Patterns and Adult Romantic Relationships

15 Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.  Intimacy: warm, tender concern  Passionate love: sexual attraction  Companionate love: affection and caregiving  Passionate love early, companionate love later  Passion gradually fades, while intimacy and commitment strengthen © bikeriderlondon/Shutterstock Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk Triangular Theory of Love

16 Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.  Friends  Are usually similar in age, sex, SES, interests  Enhance self-esteem, make life more interesting  Trust, intimacy, loyalty continue to be important  Contributions of social media  Siblings as friends © Adam Gregor/Shutterstock Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk Friendships in Early Adulthood

17 Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Same-Sex Friendships  Gender differences: women’s more intimate  Individual differences: longer friendships more intimate Other-Sex Friendships  Fewer than same-sex friendships  Educated, employed women have largest number  Benefits to both genders:  Men: opportunity for emotional expressiveness  Women: objective points of view Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk Gender and Friendship

18 Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.  Early adulthood:  Leaving home  Joining of families in marriage  Parenthood  Middle adulthood:  Launching children  Late adulthood:  Retirement  Death of spouse © bikeriderlondon/Shutterstock Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk Family Life Cycle

19 Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.  Average age of leaving increased over last 50 years  Financial dependence is a factor  More than 50% leave, then return briefly  Culture, SES, ethnicity affect ability to leave, interest in leaving  Parents highly committed to helping young people move into adult roles Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk Leaving Home

20 Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.  Marrying later  70% marry at least once  Fewer marriages  Staying single, cohabiting, not remarrying after divorce  Trend toward legalization of same-sex marriage © Pitcha Torranin/Shutterstock Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk Trends in Marriage

21 Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Traditional  Clear division of roles  Woman: cares for husband, children, home  Man: head of household; responsible for economic well-being Egalitarian  Partners as equals  Share power, authority  Balance in attention to jobs, children, home, spouse  Most well-educated women expect this form of marriage Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk Traditional and Egalitarian Marriages

22 Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Figure 14.2 (From L. P. Cooke, 2010, “The Politics of Housework,” in J. Treas & S. Drobnic, [Eds.], Dividing the Domestic: Men, Women, and Household Work in Cross ‐ National Perspective, p. 70. Copyright © 2010 by the Board of Trustees of the Leland Stanford Jr. University. Adapted with the permission of Stanford University Press, Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk Gender and Housework Hours

23 Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.  Family backgrounds  Age at marriage  Timing of first pregnancy  Relationship to extended family  Marital patterns in extended family  Financial and employment status  Family responsibilities  Personality characteristics  Positive biases of partner’s attributes Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk Factors Related to Marital Satisfaction

24 Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.  Committed by both men and women, but women more likely to be seriously injured  Violence–remorse cycles common, related to:  Personality  Developmental history  Family circumstances  Culture  Existing treatments not very effective; need whole-family approach, services for men Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk Partner Abuse

25 Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Figure 14.3 (From Kaya & Cook, 2010; World Health Organization, 2000, 2005.) Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk Assaults by Intimate Partners Against Women

26 Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.  In United States, fewer married couples have children (70%)  Delay having first child  Decline in family size: U.S. average of 2.1 children per woman © Rob Marmion/Shutterstock Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk Trends in Having Children

27 Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.  Parental roles  Often become more traditional with first birth  With second birth, pull back from traditional roles  Typically mild decline in relationship satisfaction; sharing caregiving predicts happiness  Later parenthood eases transition  Attainment of occupational goals  More life experience  Stronger relationship Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk Transition to Parenthood

28 Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.  Increasing: 8%–10% remain single for life  Gender differences:  Women more likely to stay single  More well-educated women, uneducated men single after age 30  Ethnic differences: African Americans single longer  Stressful periods:  Late twenties  Mid-thirties for women Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk Singlehood

29 Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.  Increase in unmarried, sexually intimate couples living together  Preparation for marriage vs. alternative to marriage:  In Western Europe, cohabiters nearly as committed as married people  U.S. couples who cohabit before engagement more likely to divorce  Homosexual cohabiters report strong relationship commitment © Monkey Business Images/Shutterstock Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk Cohabitation

30 Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.  Involuntary  No parenthood partner  Infertile  May be dissatisfied  Voluntary  Usually college-educated and committed to prestigious jobs  About 20% of women © Monkey Business Images/Shutterstock Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk Childlessness

31 Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.  Stabilized since 1980s  In United States, about 45%  Most common times: first seven years, midlife  Young children and adolescents involved © Yuriy Rudyy/Shutterstock Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk Divorce Rates

32 Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.  Major change in life and self-image  Opportunities for positive and negative outcomes  Immediate consequences generally subside in two years  Disrupted social networks  Decline in social support  Increased anxiety, depression, impulsivity  Traditional women and noncustodial fathers may have more problems  New partner enhances life satisfaction  More crucial for men Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk Consequences of Divorce

33 Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.  Most remarry within four years of divorce  Men sooner than women  Vulnerable to breakup:  Too focused on practical matters  Carry over negative interaction patterns  More likely to view divorce as acceptable resolution  Stepfamily stress  Takes three to five years to blend new family  Education, couples/family counseling can help Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk Remarriage After Divorce

34 Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.  Stepmothers experience more parent– child conflict  Stepfathers with children establish positive bonds faster  Relationship quality varies widely  Higher divorce rate for remarried couples with stepchildren Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk Stepparents

35 Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.  Affects about 11% of U.S. children  Predominantly African-American women: reliance on extended family  Increased financial hardship for low-SES women  Paternal involvement  Reliability of biological father  Stepfather–stepchild relationships © H. Tuller/Shutterstock Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk Never-Married Single Parents

36 Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.  20%–35% of lesbians, 5%–15% of gay men  Children of heterosexual past relationships, adoption, or assisted reproduction  Children do not differ from peers cognitively or socially  May build “families of choice”  Stigma is a major concern © Dubova/Shutterstock Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk Gay and Lesbian Parents

37 Copyright © 2014, 2011, 2008 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.  Disappointment near start of career is common  National economy affects career paths  Many job changes in twenties  Adjust expectations to opportunities to advance  Effective mentors enhance adjustment and success © Odua Images/Shutterstock Exploring Lifespan Development Third Edition  Laura E. Berk Career Development in Early Adulthood


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