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Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Applied Child & Adolescent Development Emotional and Social Development in Early Adulthood.

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Presentation on theme: "Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Applied Child & Adolescent Development Emotional and Social Development in Early Adulthood."— Presentation transcript:

1 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Applied Child & Adolescent Development Emotional and Social Development in Early Adulthood This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited by law: Any public performance or display, including transmission of any image over a network; Any public performance or display, including transmission of any image over a network; Preparation of any derivative work, including the extraction, in whole or in part, of any images; Preparation of any derivative work, including the extraction, in whole or in part, of any images; Any rental, lease, or lending of the program. Any rental, lease, or lending of the program.

2 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Emerging Adulthood Multidimensional, multidirectional Gradual transition from late teens until early twenties exploring education, work, values, relationships exploring education, work, values, relationships few strict social expectations few strict social expectations attitudes and values broaden attitudes and values broaden Can explore in breadth and in depth

3 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Have Young Adults Reached Adulthood? Figure 14.1

4 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Dual-Cycle Model in Early College Years Cycle between making and evaluating commitments In-depth exploration and certainty better social adjustment better social adjustment better academic adjustment better academic adjustment Personal agency DigitalVision

5 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Emerging Adulthood and Cultural Change, Variations Rapid cultural change offers new challenges. entry-level jobs require more education entry-level jobs require more education delays in financial independence delays in financial independence delays in career commitment delays in career commitment typical in wealthy nations typical in wealthy nations In developing nations, only for privileged Unknown in traditional, rural-based nations

6 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Emerging Adulthood in Collectivist Cultures, Low-SES Collectivist Social considerations Role attainment as sign of adulthood Self-controlLow-SES Emerging adulthood limited or nonexistent Floundering period unemployment unemployment low-paying jobs low-paying jobs

7 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Fostering Success in Emerging Adulthood Resilience cognitive attributes cognitive attributes emotional attributes emotional attributes social attributes social attributes social support social support DigitalVision

8 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Erikson’s Theory: Intimacy versus Isolation Intimacy Making a permanent commitment to intimate partner Involves giving up some new independence, redefining identity Strong identity helps Affects friendships, work Isolation Loneliness, self-absorption Hesitant to form close ties Fear of losing identity compete compete reject differences reject differences threatened by closeness threatened by closeness

9 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Levinson’s Early Adult Season Early adult transition dream dream mentor mentor Early adulthood life structure men: “settling down” men: “settling down” women: split dreams women: split dreams Age-30 transition reevaluate life structure reevaluate life structure often focus on underdeveloped aspects often focus on underdeveloped aspects can be time of crisis can be time of crisis ©David Gilder/Dreamstime.com

10 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Vaillant’s Adaptation to Life Twenties – intimacy concerns Thirties – career consolidation Forties – generativity Fifties to Sixties – “keepers of meaning” Seventies – spiritual and reflective Absolute Family

11 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Social Clock Age-graded expectations for life events Less rigid than in earlier generations Following social clock lends confidence, contributes to social stability Distress if not following or falling behind ©Ron Chapple Studios/Dreamstime.com

12 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Selecting a Mate Physical proximity Most select partners who are similar Gender differences women: intelligence, ambition, financial status, morals women: intelligence, ambition, financial status, morals men: attractiveness, domestic skills men: attractiveness, domestic skills

13 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Childhood Attachment and Adult Romantic Relationships Attachment History WorkingModelAdultRelationships Secure comfortable with intimacy; unafraid of abandonment trust, happiness, friendship Avoidant stress independence, mistrust, anxiety about closeness jealousy, emotional distance, little physical pleasure, unrealistic beliefs Resistant seek quick love, complete merging jealousy, desperation, emotional highs and lows

14 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Triangular Theory of Love Three components intimacy intimacy passion passion commitment commitment Passionate love early; companionate love later passion gradually fades while intimacy, commitment grow passion gradually fades while intimacy, commitment grow Cultural differences Absolute Family

15 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Keeping Love Alive Make time for the relationship. Make time for the relationship. Tell your partner you love him/her. Tell your partner you love him/her. Be available when your partner needs you. Be available when your partner needs you. Communicate constructively about problems. Communicate constructively about problems. Show interest in important aspects of your partner’s life. Show interest in important aspects of your partner’s life. Confide in your partner. Confide in your partner. Forgive minor offenses. Forgive minor offenses. Try to understand major offenses. Try to understand major offenses.

16 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Friendships in Early Adulthood Friends usually similar age, sex, SES Common interests, experiences, needs add to pleasure of friendship add to pleasure of friendship Enhance self-esteem, make life more interesting Trust, intimacy, and loyalty continue to be important Siblings often friends

17 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Gender and Friendship Same-Sex Friendships Gender differences women’s more intimate women’s more intimate Individual differences longer friendships more intimate longer friendships more intimate single people more intimate with friends single people more intimate with friends Other-Sex Friendships Fewer, shorter-lasting than same-sex educated, employed women have most educated, employed women have most Benefits to both genders men: opportunity for expression men: opportunity for expression women: new views women: new views Sexual attraction must be considered.

18 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Factors in Loneliness Age peaks in late teens, early twenties peaks in late teens, early twenties declines through seventies declines through seventies Circumstances separated, divorced, widowed separated, divorced, widowed uninvolved men uninvolved men immigrants to individualist from collectivist cultures immigrants to individualist from collectivist cultures Personal characteristics socially anxious socially anxious insecure models of attachment insecure models of attachment defeating behaviors, attitudes defeating behaviors, attitudes

19 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Loneliness and Emotional Distress at Different Ages Figure 14.2

20 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Family Life Cycle Early adulthood leaving home leaving home joining families in marriage joining families in marriage parenthood parenthood Middle adulthood launching children launching children Late adulthood retirement retirement death of spouse death of spouse Late adulthood retirement retirement death of spouse death of spouse ©Jarenwicklund/Dreamstime.com

21 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Leaving Home Average age decreasing 50% of 18- to 25-year-olds live with parent 50% of 18- to 25-year-olds live with parent depart for education earlier, marriage later depart for education earlier, marriage later too early may be long-term disadvantage too early may be long-term disadvantage Many return briefly Culture, SES, ethnicity affect ability, interest in leaving Family relationships can improve.

22 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Trends in Marriage Marrying later Nearly 90% marry at least once Fewer marriages staying single, cohabiting, not remarrying staying single, cohabiting, not remarrying Legalization of same-sex marriage in some places “Mixed” marriages increasingly common ©Valeriya Potapova/Dreamstime.com

23 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Traditional and Egalitarian Marriages Traditional Clear division of roles woman: cares for husband, children, home woman: cares for husband, children, home man: head of household, economic support man: head of household, economic supportEgalitarian Partners as equals share authority share authority balance attention to jobs, children, home, spouse balance attention to jobs, children, home, spouse

24 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Gender and Housework Figure 14.3

25 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Factors Related to Marital Satisfaction Family backgrounds Family backgrounds Age at marriage Age at marriage Length of courtship Length of courtship Timing of first pregnancy Timing of first pregnancy Relationship to extended family Relationship to extended family Financial and employment status Financial and employment status Family responsibilities Family responsibilities Personality characteristics Personality characteristics ©Orange Line Media/Dreamstime.com

26 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Partner Abuse Men and women both become violent same-sex or other-sex partnerships same-sex or other-sex partnerships women more likely to get seriously injured women more likely to get seriously injured Violence–remorse cycles common Factors include: personality personality developmental history developmental history family circumstances family circumstances culture culture Much treatment not very effective need whole-family approach, alcohol treatment, services for men need whole-family approach, alcohol treatment, services for men

27 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Assaults Against Women by Intimate Partners Figure 14.4

28 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Trends in Having Children In United States, fewer married couples have children (70%) mothers’ careers mothers’ careers less social criticism less social criticism Delay first child Smaller numbers of children average of 2 or fewer average of 2 or fewer

29 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Decision to Have Children Advantages Warmth and affection Warmth and affection Stimulation and fun Stimulation and fun Seen as mature community member Seen as mature community member Carry on family name Carry on family name Sense of accomplishment Sense of accomplishment Decrease selfish nature Decrease selfish nature Family resource Family resourceDisadvantages Loss of freedom Loss of freedom Financial strain Financial strain Role overload Role overload Affect mother’s job Affect mother’s job Imperfect world Imperfect world Adds to worries Adds to worries Reduced time with partner Reduced time with partner Loss of privacy Loss of privacy Fear of “bad” children Fear of “bad” children

30 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Transition to Parenthood Many profound changes Roles often become more traditional. roles get less traditional with second birth roles get less traditional with second birth Marriage can be strained. problems before children predict problems after problems before children predict problems after sharing care predicts happiness sharing care predicts happiness Later parenthood eases transition. couple’s groups, paid leave help, too couple’s groups, paid leave help, too Absolute Family

31 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Parenting Powerful source of adult development With young children best parents work together as coparenting team challenges: few social supports; hard to find child care With adolescents brings sharp changes challenges: negotiation of roles, dip in marital satisfaction FamilyLife

32 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Parent Education Parenting books, magazines Doctors Social networks especially mothers especially mothersClasses ©Ron Chapple Studios/Dreamstime.com

33 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Singlehood Increasing One-third of males, one-fourth of females One-third of males, one-fourth of females 8-10% single for life 8-10% single for life Gender differences women more likely to stay single women more likely to stay single more high-SES women, more high-SES women, low-SES men single after age 30 Ethnic differences African Americans single longer African Americans single longer Advantages and disadvantages Stressful periods late twenties late twenties mid-thirties for women mid-thirties for women Teens and Young Adults

34 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Cohabitation Unmarried, sexually intimate, living together Increasing Can be preparation for marriage North Americans who cohabit before marriage more likely to divorce North Americans who cohabit before marriage more likely to divorce Can be alternative to marriage more accepted in Western Europe more accepted in Western Europe Cohabiting gay and lesbian couples report strong commitment.

35 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Childlessness Involuntary no parenthood partner no parenthood partner infertile infertile may be dissatisfied may be dissatisfiedVoluntary usually college-educated, committed to prestigious jobs usually college-educated, committed to prestigious jobs About 20% of women Negative stereotypes weakening Lovers

36 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Divorce Rates Stabilized since 1980s In U.S., about 45% about 10% higher for remarriages soon after first marriage about 10% higher for remarriages soon after first marriage First seven years, midlife most common times young and adolescent children involved young and adolescent children involved Lovers

37 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Causes and Factors in Divorce Background factors: age, religion, prior divorce, family background SES Gender roles, expectations Ineffective problem solving Separate lives Major problems: infidelity, money issues, substance abuse Ineffective problem solving Separate lives Major problems: infidelity, money issues, substance abuse ©Cheryl Casey/Dreamstime.com

38 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Consequences of Divorce Major change of life and self opportunities for positive and negative change opportunities for positive and negative change Immediate consequences generally subside in 2 years disrupted social networks, support disrupted social networks, support increased anxiety, depression, impulsive behavior increased anxiety, depression, impulsive behavior traditional women, noncustodial fathers may have more problems traditional women, noncustodial fathers may have more problems New partner helps satisfaction more important to men more important to men

39 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Remarriage After Divorce Most remarry within 4 years of divorce men sooner than women men sooner than women Vulnerable to breakup reasons for marriage reasons for marriage often too pragmatic often too pragmatic carry over negative patterns carry over negative patterns view divorce as acceptable resolution view divorce as acceptable resolution stepfamily stress stepfamily stress Takes 3–5 years to blend new family education, couples and family counseling can help education, couples and family counseling can help

40 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Variant Styles of Parenthood Stepparenting higher levels of tension, disagreement higher levels of tension, disagreement stepmothers most likely to experience conflict stepmothers most likely to experience conflict higher divorce rates higher divorce rates Never-married single parents affects about 10% of U.S. children affects about 10% of U.S. children largest group is young African-American women largest group is young African-American women often rely on extended family often rely on extended family children lacking father’s involvement fare poorly children lacking father’s involvement fare poorly Gay and lesbian parents heterosexual partner, adoption, assisted reproduction heterosexual partner, adoption, assisted reproduction children similar to peers in cognitive measures children similar to peers in cognitive measures may build “families of choice” may build “families of choice”

41 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Career Development in Early Adulthood Disappointment near start of career common many job changes in twenties many job changes in twenties most settle in after evaluation and adjustment most settle in after evaluation and adjustment Adjust expectations to opportunities to advance fewer opportunities, more work disengagement fewer opportunities, more work disengagement Self-efficacy, mentoring affect adjustment, success Disabilities

42 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Challenges to Women’s Career Development Discontinuous employment leave for child rearing, family care leave for child rearing, family care hinders advancement hinders advancement Concentration in low-paying, low-advancement jobs contributes to salary gap contributes to salary gap Low self-efficacy for male-dominated fields Gender stereotyping Few mentors

43 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Challenges to Ethnic Minorities’ Career Development Racial bias in workplace still remains. harder to find job harder to find job harder to advance harder to advance Ethnic minority women face combined discrimination. Successful women have high self- efficacy. Successful women have high self- efficacy.

44 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Hiring Bias Figure 14.5

45 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Work–Family Balance Dual-earner marriages are the dominant family form. most also parents most also parents Role overload is a common problem. especially for women in low-status jobs especially for women in low-status jobs Workplace supports can help. time flexibility time flexibility Effective balancing benefits home and work.


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