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مولف : شهربانو ثمربخش تهراني تعداد واحد درسي : 1 واحد تهيه کننده : شهربانو ثمربخش تهراني.

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Presentation on theme: "مولف : شهربانو ثمربخش تهراني تعداد واحد درسي : 1 واحد تهيه کننده : شهربانو ثمربخش تهراني."— Presentation transcript:

1 مولف : شهربانو ثمربخش تهراني تعداد واحد درسي : 1 واحد تهيه کننده : شهربانو ثمربخش تهراني

2 زبان تخصصي 1 دانشجويان رشته مديريت دولتي و بازرگاني را آماده‌ مي‌سازد تا متون انگليسي مربوط به رشته تحصيلي خود را به سهولت بخوانند و نکات مهم آنرا دريابند. اهداف کلي درس

3 جايگاه درس : اين درس از دروس زبان اختصاصي رشته مديريت دولتي و بازرگاني مي‌باشد و از دروس کارشناسي است. انتخاب اين درس پس از گذراندن دروس زبان پيش و عمومي توصيه مي‌شود.

4 This part includes the definitions and examples of key words and phrases that are supposed to be necessary to review or and learn before reading the main passages of each unit.

5 This part includes the definitions and examples of general words of the main passages. Students should read this part carefully, and then do the vocabulary exercises of each unit.

6 The reading passages are preceded by a number of questions. There are three kinds of comprehension in each unit. a.True- false Questions b.Multiple- choice Questions c.Open-ended Questions

7 There is an increasing demand for students to become familiar with the translation skills. The final part of each unit provide short passages.

8 There are a few questions at the end of units two, four, and five, students should answer these, questions in order to assess themselves.

9 Since this book is designed for self- instructional study, students must do the exercises themselves. But they can check the answers to all the questions in Appendix.

10 list

11 This unit has been designed to help you learn a number of key words of administration and some of the general words meaningful contexts; to expand your reading comprehension skills.

12 After carefully reading this unit, you are expected to: 1.Define the meaning of the words and general words, and do the exercises; 2.Do the comprehension exercises 3.Translate Passage into Persian.

13 A.administrative, classification, commissioner, craft, create, creation, demand, devise, efficiency, employ, employee, end, financial, leader, personality, produce, product, promotional, shift, trait. B.blur, deem, elusive, evolve, imaginative, inducement, intuition, lurk, precise.

14 Column 1 1.employ 2.employee 3.trait 4.evolve 5.inducement 6. end Column 2 ( ) a. feature ( ) b. cause something to become unclear ( ) c. give work to someone ( ) d. develop naturally or gradually ( ) d. a person who works in a company

15 1. Would you ever have ……………him to become a manager? 1. Would you ever have ……………him to become a manager? 2. The workers’……………..for three days holidays were accepted by the executive managers. 2. The workers’……………..for three days holidays were accepted by the executive managers.AdverbAdjectiveNounVerb----Imaginativeimaginationimagine DemandingDemandDemand imagined demand

16 trait, employment, precision demand 1. The ………….…of several new employees requires extra budget for the oil company. 2. The government…………..a scheme for redeveloping the city centre. 3. The diagram had been copied with great……….. devise employment precision

17 1.Why should we not consider administration merely as a science or an art? 2.What is the reason that explains administration as a craft? 3.What kind of traits does administration share with art?

18 Administration shares traits with the arts as well as the sciences. Administration often work in highly imaginative ways, employing a mix of materials, including intuition....continued

19 But there is a vital difference that keeps administration from being characterized as an art: Artists create works of aesthetics; administrators attempt to solve problems....continued

20 Obviously, categorizing public administration brings with it some fuzziness since the field shares traits with both science and art. Therefore, the category that is most suitable, or at least most....continued

21 Comfortable and workable. That category that is craft. An example is a city divided for the purpose of trash collection into two distinct and equal districts. The way each team works...continued

22 may differ, depending on the personalities of the administrative leaders, workers, and a variety of other factors. However, an objective standard exists for comparing the relative efficiency of each....continued

23 In administrative situations, an objective standard lurks somewhere, that is often elusive, and hard to apply. The objective standard, lack of precise formula, and problem solving are the traits of craft.

24 1.………Since administration uses scientific theories, laws, and data, it is a science in itself. 2.…………. Administration is neither a science nor an art. 3.…………… Administrations try to solve problems while artists create works. F T T

25 1.Which of the following statements best explains the category of administration? a.A scientific study. b.An artistic works. c.A combination of art and science not a craft. d.It can be considered as a craft.

26 -What are the factors that make the teams’ work different from each other? -Answer: The personalities of the leaders,workers and other factors make them work different from each other.

27 Administration involves people, action, and interaction. It is a process in which human beings work towards common goals. پاسخ : مديريت دولتي با افراد، عمل و تعامل بين آنها سروکار دارد.

28 list

29 This unit has been designed to help you learn a number of key words of administration and some of the general words meaningful contexts; to expand your reading comprehension skills.

30 After carefully reading this unit, you are expected to: 1.Define the meaning of the words and general words, and do the exercises; 2.Do the comprehension exercises 3.Translate Passage into Persian.

31 A: allocate, aptitude, assembly-line, authority, commitment, controlling, corporation, leading, manufacturer, motivating, multinational, organizing, performance, planning, professional, resources, set-up. B: abstract, carry on, convey, deviation, effectively, efficiently, essential, feasibility, hunch,, and procedure

32 Column 1 1. aptitude 2. feasibility 3. planning 4. progress 5. multinational Column 2 ( ) c. way of arranging something ( ) g. possible in some particular way ( ) o. involving many countries ( ) q. the state of continuing

33 1. She has …………… the company very well for many years. 1. She has …………… the company very well for many years. 2. “ The factory needs proper ……………”, he said. 2. “ The factory needs proper ……………”, he said. 3. The college runs courses in…………… The college runs courses in……………...AdverbAdjectiveNounVerbManageriallyManagerialManagementManage Organizational ly OrganizedOrganizationorganize managed organization management

34 progress, effectively, resources, plans plans 1.During one’s………….…of the Government behind them. 2.He made an effort to do his job……………….. 3. He never…………head, he just does things suddenly. effectively progress plans

35 1.Why does the author define management as a process? 2.What are the differences between organizing and organization? 3.How many principles does the controlling function involve?

36 Management is the process of planning, organizing, leading, and controlling the efforts of organization members and of using all other organizational resources to achieve stated organizational goals....continued

37 We define management as a process because all managers, regardless of their particular aptitudes or skills, engage in certain interrelated activities in order to achieve their desired goals.

38 Planning implies that managers think through their goals and actions in advance. Their actions are based on some method, plan, or logic rather than on a hunch.

39 Organizing is the process of arranging and collecting work, authority and resources among an organization’s members so they can achieve an organization’s goal efficiently. Different goals, of course, require different structures.

40 After management has made plans, created a structure, and hired appropriate personnel, someone must lead the organization. Some managers call this process directing or influencing. Leading involves motivation others to...continued

41 perform the tasks necessary to achieve the organization’s objectives. Leading is often crucial to the success of those activities. The two key components of effective leadership are motivation and communication.

42 The controlling function involves three main elements: (1) Establishing standards of performance; (2) Measuring current performance; (3) Comparing this performance to the established standards; and (4) If deviations are detected, taking corrective actions (s).

43 1.………Planning is the fundamental aspects of management process. 2. ………The initial stage in the management process is the selection of goals for an organization. 3.………The multinational corporation do not necessarily require various structures. T T F

44 -The management processes include ………….. a. organizational actions and goals b. management aptitudes and skills c. organizing, planning, controlling, and leading d. organizational resources and members

45 -How many stages does the planning include? -Answer: The selection of goals for the organization, establishment of objectives for its divisions and departments and the establishment of programs.

46 Managers are charged with the responsibility of taking actions that will make it possible for individuals to make their best contribution to group objectives....continued

47 پاسخ : مديران مسئوليت فراهم ساختن شرايط مناسب کار را برعهده دارند، تا بتوانند به بهترين وجه از نيروي انساني براي تحقق هدفهاي گروهي استفاده کنند.

48 Part one: Vocabulary -He is one of the most important ………….. In acting as a business agent. -Part Two: Reading Managing, like all other practices (whether of medicine, composition, engineering, accountancy), is an art. leaders

49 Managing is an art because managers……... a.use the management organized knowledge b. use a crude knowledge c.do things in the light of the realities of a situation d.practices pertinent knowledge

50 1.………Managing like all other practices such as medicine, accountancy is an art. …………. According to the passage, science and art are mutually. T F

51 The applications of principles of management various from institution to institutions. پاسخ : بکارگيري اصول مديريت از مؤسسه ‌ اي به موسسه ديگر متفاوت است

52

53 This unit has been designed to help you learn a number of key words of administration and some of the general words meaningful contexts; to expand your reading comprehension skills.

54 After carefully reading this unit, you are expected to: 1.Define the meaning of the words and general words, and do the exercises. 2.Do the comprehension exercises. 3.Translate Passage into Persian.

55 A: activity, administration, bureaucracy, collective, cooperate, cooperative, cooperation development, goal, organization, organize, organized, process, public, record, task, utility B: abstract, diverse, domain, essence, evaluation, implement, ingredient, interaction, involve, recreation, rudiment, sanitary, vital

56 Column 1 1. public 2. record 3. process 4. implement 5. interaction Column 2 ( ) j. permanent account of facts ( ) k. series of actions or operations ( ) i. carry out ( ) c. of or concerning people in general

57 1. The two offices are …………….……… on the project. 1. The two offices are …………….……… on the project. 2. A report was produced by the government in …………………with the chemical industry. 2. A report was produced by the government in …………………with the chemical industry. 3. Some teachers are more involved in …………………….than. 3. Some teachers are more involved in …………………….than.AdverbAdjectiveNounVerb------AdministrationAdminister Cooperationcooperate administration cooperate cooperation

58 progress, bureaucracy, goal,domain 1.He had a good ………….…in his work in this company. 2.They need to reduce paperwork and ………………..in the company. 3. Their…………was to solve the administrative problems. progress bureaucracy goal

59 1.What are the constitutions of publicly organized communities? 2.What dose public administration mean? 3.What is the process of public administration? 4.How many ingredients does the administration cover?

60 The words public administration express a concept that at first glance may seem abstract and nondescript. However, a closer look at the phrase helps take away the ambiguity....continued

61 Public administration is the process of implementing those diverse values in our complex and ever-changing society and therefore plays a vital role in the daily life of all citizens....continued

62 The first and foremost ingredient of administration is people. The second ingredient of administration is action. The third ingredient is interaction....continued

63 Administration is a process involving human beings jointly engaged in working toward common goals. Administration thus covers many, if not most, of the more exciting activities that take place in human society.

64 1.………public administration serves the entire community as well as the individuals. 2. ………Administration can take place by integrating people and their action. 3.………Joint activity is not an essential part of all administration. T T F

65 -At first glance public administration is considered as an images of public bureaucracy because it may seem ………….. A.concrete and colorless B.nondescript and concrete C.concrete and abstract D.colorless and nondescript

66 -What does the process of administration involve? -Answer: Administration is a process involving human beings jointly engaged in working toward common goals.

67 Every public administrator works within an organizational framework. پاسخ : هر مدير عمومي ( دولتي ) در چارچوب سازماني کار مي کند.

68

69 This unit has been designed to help you learn a number of key words of administration and some of the general words meaningful contexts; to expand your reading comprehension skills.

70 After carefully reading this unit, you are expected to: 1.Define the meaning of the words and general words, and do the exercises. 2.Do the comprehension exercises. 3.Translate Passage into Persian.

71 A: communication, decision, estimate, inventory level, judgment, long-term, output, policy, price, responsibility, risk, routine, short-term, statement B: approach, deliberation, encounter, immediate, immediacy, inherent, sheer, trivial

72 Column 1 1. market 2. price 3. trivial 4. immediacy 5. encounter Column 2 ( ) a. the nearness or urgent presence of something ( ) b. of little importance ( ) c. a place for buying and selling goods ( ) d. meet or be faced with something

73 1. In their …………….……… their income would be low. 1. In their …………….……… their income would be low. 2. Her …………………to town the first thing you see is the beautiful. 2. Her …………………to town the first thing you see is the beautiful. 3. She…………………….that the work would take two months. 3. She…………………….that the work would take two months.AdverbAdjectiveNounVerb------decisiondecide estimationestimate estimate estimation decision

74 Policy, short-term, deliberation, circumstance 1.He seems to be in easy ………….…since he had his pay increased. 2.The Government’s economic ………….. was a success. 3. Their company’s difficulties are not …………… ones. circumstance policy short-term

75 1.Under what circumstances decision making made? 2.What is the importance of decision making in management process? 3.What are the differences between individual and managerial decision making?

76 Decision making is an accepted part of everyday human life. In organizations, people with managerial roles are expected, among other things, to make decision as an important part of their responsibilities....continued

77 Decision making is a key management element because managers continually face decisions in planning, organizing, leading, and controlling that affect the organization and its performance.

78 Decision can range from those of a vital, once- for-all nature to those of a routine and relatively trivial nature. They can be immediate in their effect or they can be delayed.

79 These are the basic, long-term decisions which settle the organization’s relationship with its environment, notably in terms of its product or service and its market.

80 These are the short-term decisions which settle are involved in the decision making process, and the decisions themselves are routine.

81 These decisions are subject to the conflicting demand of strategic and operating problems. They are essentially concerned with settling the organization’s structure, e.g. by establishing lines of authority and communication.

82 Depending on the level of information available, decision making occurs under four conditions: certainty, risk, uncertainty, and ambiguity.

83 This condition exists when a manager has all the information needed to clearly understand the problem, to know all the possible consequences of these alternatives.

84 This condition exists when the manager understands the problem and has only enough information to the possible alternatives and to estimate the probability that each alternative will result in the desired outcome.

85 A condition of uncertainty is a situation in which the manager understands the problem but does not have complete information on the possible alternatives and the likely consequences of each alternative.

86 Managers make decisions under a condition of ambiguity when they have little or no information about the problem, the alternatives, or the likely consequences of each alternative.

87 1.……Human being are concerned with the decision making in their life. 2.………Managerial decision making is the same as the individuals’. 3. ………In management process, decision making has a vital role. T F T

88 -Managerial decisions making under the condition of ……….occurs when the manager has only enough information to understand. a.risk b.certainty c.ambiguity d.uncertainty

89 - Why do the operating decisions have priority over strategic and administrative decision? Answer: Because they have the ability to show outcomes in the short-term and also their complete weight of their volume.

90 Individuals in organizations make decisions. That is, they make choices from among two or more alternatives. پاسخ : در سازمانها، افراد تصميم ‌ مي ‌ گيرند. يعني آنان از ميان دو يا چند راه حل، يکي از برمي ‌ گزينند.

91 Part one: Vocabulary -Decision making is a (n) ……..… Part of management. a.inherent b.immediate c.long-term d.routine

92 If decision effectiveness is defined in terms of speed, individuals are superior. If creativity is important, groups tend to be more effective than individuals.

93 1.The effectiveness of decision can be concerned in terms of…. a.accuracy, quality, performance, evidence b.creativity, speed, importance, individual c.acceptance, criteria, group, degree d.speed, creativity, accuracy, and acceptance of the final solution

94 1.………In terms of acceptance, groups make decisions more effectively. 2.…………. The performance of the most knowledgeable individual is often better than that of a group. T T

95 An understanding of culture is of great value to public administrators. پاسخ: درک مفهوم فرهنگ براي مديران دولتي داراي ارزش زيادي است.

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97 This unit has been designed to help you learn a number of key words of administration and some of the general words meaningful contexts; to expand your reading comprehension skills.

98 After carefully reading this unit, you are expected to: 1.Define the meaning of the words and general words, and do the exercises. 2.Do the comprehension exercises. 3.Translate Passage into Persian.

99 A. ability, bonus, coaching, contributor, dismissal, extrinsic rewards, forces, funding, intrinsic rewards, leadership, motive, promotion, reward, safety, staff, supervisory, sustain, training. B. adapt, ambitious, concentrate, consequence, enthusiasm, grumble, initiate, refrain, stimulate, tackle.

100 Column 1 1.motivation 2.ambition 3.grumble 4.refrain 5. staff Column 2 ( ) j. the act of motive ( )n. express in discontent manner ( ) o. keep oneself from doing something ( ) p. a group of workers who carry on a job

101 1. This book needs some ……………. 1. This book needs some ……………. 2. I couldn’t ……………….…money to the poor so I gave clothes instead. 2. I couldn’t ……………….…money to the poor so I gave clothes instead. 3. He can make a…….…………..of work rather than money.. 3. He can make a…….…………..of work rather than money..AdverbAdjectiveNounVerb AdaptationAdapt -----ContributiveContributioncontribute adaptation contribute contribution

102 dismissal, ambition, enthusiastic, motive motive 1. He has an ………….…attempt; I hope he succeeds. 2. The …………..led to a strike in wood Industry.. 3. We understood the…………..behind his action. dismissal ambition motive

103 1.What is the process of motivation? 2.What is the motive of a person? 3.What is the role of motivation in managerial and supervisory position? 4.How many rewards are attributed to motivation?

104 Motivation is concerned with people do (or refrain from doing!) things. A motive is a need or a driving force within a person. The process of motivation involves choosing alternative forms...continued

105 of action in order to achieve some desired end or goal. Our understanding of another’s motivation is influenced considerably by our own attitudes towards people. When a manager speaks of...continued

106 “highly motivated staff” he is indicating that the staff are doing what he wants them to do. “highly motivated staff” he is indicating that the staff are doing what he wants them to do. If a manager assumes that younger employees are generally hardworking and ambitious as well,...continued

107 he will take the view that they can be motivated by means of demanding work, promotion opportunities and the exercise of responsibility. Understanding the forces that shape employees’ performance is no simple task....continued

108 Performance depends on three factors: ability, environment, and motivation. Managers often find that dealing with a lack of employees, motivation is more difficult...continued

109 Rewards fall into two categories, intrinsic rewards and extrinsic rewards. Intrinsic rewards are those rewards that are internally experienced as the consequence of a particular action....continued

110 Extrinsic rewards are those external rewards that are provided by others as a consequence of an action. In this case, managers are offering an external reward (money) as an inducement to motivate employees.

111 1.………A motive is a need within an organization. 2.…………. The staff may lose their motivation by the wrong assumption of their manager. F T

112 -Since motivation is an internal force, it is not empirically …..………. a.observable b.internal c.external d.variable

113 -How many factors affect employee’s performance? -Answer: Three factors affect employee’s performance: motivation, ability, and environment.

114 Many people incorrectly view motivation as a personal trait-that is, some have it and others don’t. پاسخ : بيشتر مردم از روي اشتباه انگيزه را بعنوان خصوصيتي فردي مي ‌ پندارند.

115 Part one: Vocabulary -The ……..… worth of a man arises from such quality as honor and courage, rather than how much he owns. a.financial b.extrinsic c.intrinsic d.ambitious

116 Money can motivate some people under some conditions. So the issue isn’t really whether or not money can motivate. The answer to that: It can’t!

117 1.Money is important for those individuals with….. a.higher-order needs b.higher performance c.lower-order needs d.significant performance

118 1.……Money is partially important to the individual. 2.……… Money has significant effect on motivated person. 3.……. The work force need money to achieve their lower-order needs. T F T

119 The importance of money as a motivator has been consistently downgraded by most behavioral scientists. پاسخ: از نظر دانشمندان علوم رفتاري اهميت پول بطور مداوم بعنوان يک انگيزه کاهش يافته است.


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