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Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION TO MANAGEMENT AND ORGANIZATIONS © Prentice Hall, 20021-1
Who Are Managers? Manager –someone who works with and through other people by coordinating their work activities in order to accomplish organizational goals –changing nature of organizations and work has blurred the clear lines of distinction between managers and non-managerial employees © Prentice Hall, 20021-2
Who Are Managers? (cont.) Managerial Titles –First-line managers - manage the work of non- managerial individuals who are directly involved with the production or creation of the organization’s products –Middle managers - all managers between the first-line level and the top level of the organization manage the first-line managers –Top managers - responsible for making organization- wide decisions and establishing the plans and goals that affect the entire organization © Prentice Hall, 20021-3
Organizational Levels Non-managerial Employees Top Managers Middle Managers First-line Managers © Prentice Hall, 20021-4
What Is Management? Management –the process of coordinating work activities so that they are completed efficiently and effectively with and through other people –elements of definition Process - represents ongoing functions or primary activities engaged in by managers Coordinating - distinguishes a managerial position from a non-managerial one © Prentice Hall, 20021-5
What is Management? (cont.) Management (cont.) –elements of definition Efficiency - getting the most output from the least amount of inputs –“doing things right” –concerned with means Effectiveness - completing activities so that organizational goals are attained –“doing the right things” –concerned with ends © Prentice Hall, 20021-6
Efficiency and Effectiveness in Management Management Strives For: Low resource waste (high efficiency) High goal attainment (high effectiveness) Resource Usage Efficiency (Means) Goal Attainment Effectiveness (Ends) Low WasteHigh Attainment © Prentice Hall, 20021-7
What Do Managers Do? Management Functions and Process –most useful conceptualization of the manager’s job –Planning - defining goals, establishing strategies for achieving those goals, and developing plans to integrate and coordinate activities –Organizing - determining what tasks are to be done, who is to do them, how the tasks are to be grouped, who reports to whom, and where decisions are made –Leading - directing and motivating all involved parties and dealing with employee behavior issues –Controlling - monitoring activities to ensure that they are going as planned © Prentice Hall, 20021-8
What Do Managers Do? (cont.) Management Functions and Process (cont.) –Management process set of ongoing decisions and work activities in which managers engage as they plan, organize, lead, and control managerial activities are usually done in a continuous manner © Prentice Hall, 20021-9
What Do Managers Do? (cont.) Management Roles –specific categories of managerial behavior Interpersonal - involve people and duties that are ceremonial and symbolic in nature Informational - receiving, collecting, and disseminating information Decisional - revolve around making choices –emphasis that managers give to the various roles seems to change with their organizational level © Prentice Hall, 20021-10
What Do Managers Do? (cont.) Management Skills –Technical - knowledge of and proficiency in a certain specialized field –Human - ability to work well with other people both individually and in a group –Conceptual - ability to think and to conceptualize about abstract and complex situations see the organization as a whole understand the relationships among subunits visualize how the organization fits into its broader environment © Prentice Hall, 20021-11
EXHIBIT 1.5: SKILLS NEEDED AT DIFFERENT MANAGEMENT LEVELS © Prentice Hall, 20021-12
What Do Managers Do? (cont.) Managing Systems –System - a set of interrelated and interdependent parts arranged in a manner that produces a unified whole provides a more general and broader picture of what managers do than the other perspectives provide –Closed system - not influenced by and do not interact with their environment –Open system - dramatically interact with their environment organizations - take in inputs from their environments –transform or process inputs into outputs –outputs are distributed into the environment © Prentice Hall, 20021-13
System The Organization As An Open System Transformation Employee’s work activities Management activities Technology and operations methods OutputsInputs Raw materials Human resources Capital Technology Information Products and services Financial results Information Human results Environment Feedback © Prentice Hall, 20021-14
What Do Managers Do? (cont.) Managing Systems (cont.) –managers must coordinate various work activities ensure that interdependent parts work together recognize and understand the impact of various external factors –decisions and actions taken in one organizational area will affect other areas and vice versa © Prentice Hall, 20021-15
What Do Managers Do? (cont.) Managing in Different and Changing Situations –require managers to use different approaches and techniques –Contingency perspective - different ways of managing are required in different organizations and different circumstances stresses that there are no simplistic or universal rules contingency variable © Prentice Hall, 20021-16
EXHIBIT 1.8: POPULAR CONTINGENCY VARIABLES © Prentice Hall, 20021-17
What Is An Organization? Organization –a deliberate arrangement of people to accomplish some specific purpose elements of definition –each organization has a distinct purpose –each organization is composed of people –all organizations develop some deliberate structure –today’s organizations have adopted: flexible work arrangements open communications greater responsiveness to changes © Prentice Hall, 20021-18
EXHIBIT 1.10: THE CHANGING ORGANIZATION © Prentice Hall, 20021-19
Why Study Management? Universality of Management –management is needed in all types and sizes of organizations at all organizational levels in all work areas –management functions must be performed in all organizations consequently, have vested interest in improving management © Prentice Hall, 20021-20
EXHIBIT 1.11: UNIVERSAL NEED FOR MANAGEMENT © Prentice Hall, 20021-21
Why Study Management? (cont.) The Reality of Work –most people have some managerial responsibilities –most people work for a manager Challenges of Being a Manager - being a manager is hard work - must deal with a variety of personalities - must motivate workers in the face of uncertainty © Prentice Hall, 20021-22
Why Study Management? (cont.) Rewards of Being a Manager –create an environment that allows others to do their best work –provide opportunities to think creatively –help others find meaning and fulfillment –meet and work with a variety of people © Prentice Hall, 20021-23
Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION TO MANAGEMENT AND ORGANIZATIONS © Prentice Hall,
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