Presentation on theme: "HEALTH PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT Dr. Rekha Dutt Associate Professor."— Presentation transcript:
HEALTH PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT Dr. Rekha Dutt Associate Professor
Planning is for tomorrow and management is for today. Purpose of planning : To match limited resources with many problems. To eliminate wasteful expenditure. To develop best course of action to accomplish an objective. Planning includes 3 steps: 1.Plan formulation 2.Execution 3.evaluation
Health planning: It is the process of defining community health problems, identifying unmet needs, surveying the resources to meet them, establishing priority goals that are feasible and projecting administrative action to accomplish the purpose of proposed programme. Resources : manpower, money, material, time, skills Objective :It is planned end point of all activities and is concerned with the problem itself.
Target : is discreet activity. It is degree of achievement.Ex. No. of blood films, no. of vasectomies. Goal : ultimate desired state towards which objectives and resources are directed. Goal is described in terms of What is to be attained Extent to which it is to be obtained Population involved Geographical area Length of time required for attaining the goal
Plan: is a blue print for taking action. It has 5 elements 1.Objective 2.Policy : guiding principles stated as an expectation. 3.Programme: sequence of activities 4.Schedule : is time sequence for work to be done. 5.budget
Planning cycle: is involved succession of steps. 1.Analysis of health situation 2.Establishment of objectives and goals 3.Assessment of resources 4.Fixing priorities – meet unmet needs 5.Write up formulated plan – each stage is defined, costed,time needed to implement is specified,working guidance for all staff and built in system of evaluation. 6.Programming and implementation – selection,training,and supervision of manpower. 7.Monitoring 8.Evaluation
Formulate health problems Fix priorities Formulate Individual problems Define objectives Assign priority Among objective Design alternate plan Implement plan Train workers Operate the programme Collect data for evaluation Evaluation result satisfactory yes no Planning cycle
MANAGEMENT It is effective and purposeful use of resources for fulfilling a predetermined objective. It has 4 basic activities: Planning – determining what is to be done Organizing – setting up the framework and making it possible for groups to do the work Communicating – motivating people Monitoring – checking to make sure the work is progressing satisfactorily
MANAGEMENT METHODS AND TECHNIQUES METHODS BASED ON BEHAVIORAL SCIENCES 1.Organizational design: Health services should be so designed to meet the health needs and demands of people. It should be reviewed every few years because of change in concept,purpose, problems or technology. 2.Personnel management: It is skillful use of human resources like selection and training,motivation,division of responsibilities, incentives and promotions.
3.Communication : Communication barriers cause delay in reporting, notification and release of supplies. It should be solved by establishing suitable vertical and horizontal communication channels. 4.Information system: It helps in collection, classification, transmission, storage, retrieval, transformation and display of information. 5.Management by objectives: Objectives are set up for different units and subunits,each prepares its own plan of action.
Quantitative methods 1.Cost benefit analysis: Benefits are expressed in monitory terms. 2.Cost effective analysis : Benefits are expressed in results achieved,eg. Number of deaths prevented, no. of children vaccinated. 3.Cost accounting : Gives basic data on cost of any programme.It helps in cost control, planning and allocation of people and financial resources 4.Input output analysis : It shows how much input (resources ) are needed to produce a unit amount of each output.
5.System analysis: It helps the decision maker to choose an appropriate course of action,searching out objectives,finding alternative solutions, evaluating cost effectiveness, reexamination of objectives. It can be hospital supply system or an information system. 6.Planning programme and budgeting system: Allocation of resources in most effective way in achieving objectives. 7.Zero base budgeting: It requires fresh justification of funds required to run a programme starting from a zero base of funds. 8.Work sampling: Observation and recording of activities of one or more individuals to check time needed to do specified jobs. 9.Decision making : For development of resources and strategies for providing health care.
10.Network analysis: It is a graphic plan of all activities and events to be completed in order to reach an end objective. It brings discipline in planning. A.PERT( Programme evaluation and review technique) Plan service Staff recruited Equipment ordered Equipment installed Staff trained Start services 4 months 2 months 10 months 1 month events activities
B.Critical path method (CPM) : it is longest path of network. If any activity along critical path is delayed the entire project will be delayed. The time can be minimized by provision of additional inputs. The time available for completion of non critical path is called as slack period. The slack time is the time available for completion of tasks without causing delay in completion of total project.
SWOT ANALYSIS It is a strategic planning method used to evaluate strength, weakness, opportunities and threats involved in a project or in a business venture. Strength : it is attribute of person or company that are helpful to achieve objectives.Ex. Strong network,committed staff. Weakness : it is attribute of person or company that are harmful to achieve objectives.Ex. lack of clear strategies, communication barriers.
Opportunities : these are external conditions that are helpful in achieving objectives.Ex. New technology, geographic location. Threats : these are external conditions which could do damage to business performance.Ex. New competitor,recession. Aims of SWOT analysis: Take advantages of strength and opportunities. Eliminate weakness and threats.