Presentation on theme: "CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT"— Presentation transcript:
1CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT Curriculum development is defined as the process of selecting, organizing, executing and evaluating the learning experiences on the basis of the needs, abilities, and interest of learners, and on the basis of the nature of the society or community.
2Principles of curriculum development The conservative principleThe forward looking principleThe creative principlePrinciple of totality formActivity principlePreparation for lifePrinciple of connecting to lifeChild centeredIntegration and correlation
310. Comprehensiveness and balance Principle of loyaltiesVariety and flexibilityConnecting to community needsConnecting with social lifeLeisureCore and common subjectsAll round developmentDemocracy, secularism and socialismDignity of labourPrinciple of character building
4Major Factors Which Influence Curriculum Development in Nursing Education Philosophy of nursing educationEducational psychologySocietyStudentKnowledge explosion and scientific advancementsTechnological advancements in patient careEducational technologyTransnational career opportunitiesResources
5STEPS IN CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT According to Ralph TylerFormulation of Educational ObjectivesSelection of Learning ExperiencesOrganization of Learning ExperiencesEvaluation of the curriculum
61. Formulation of Educational Objectives Data required for formulating educational objectivesPhilosophyNeeds of the societyNeeds of the studentResources available in the societyLevel of the studentsSpecifications of positions to be held by the student on the completion of the programmeMinimum facilities requiredFuture trends
7Criteria for selection and statement of objectives State in terms of desired changes in behaviourShould be helpful in selecting learning experienceS’d be consistent with the accepted educational objectiveObjectives for the specific subjects or units s’d contribute to the attainment of overall objectiveS’d be attainable and practicableWorthwhile and contribute to the needs of the societyConsider the needs, ability and level of studentss’d contribute to the continued and total development of the students
8S’d serve as a motivating factor for the teachers as well as the students S’d be easily acceptable and understandableS’d maintain continuity, sequence, correlation and integration of learning activitiesCo-operatively planned and developedEach statement s’d contain only a single objectiveS’d be simple and concise in natureS’d plan the scheme of evaluation
9Steps in the Formulation of Educational Objectives Identify the needs of the learnerIdentify the needs of the societyStudy the suggestions of the expertsFormulate the philosophyState the objectives gathered from various sources in a proper wayFormulate a theory of learningScreen the objectives through educational philosophy and educational psychology and select the appropriate onesDefine the objectives clearlyState in terms of behavioural outcomes
102. Selection of Learning Experiences Learning Experience: deliberately planned experiences in selected situations where students actively participate, interact and which result in desirable changes in the behaviour of the students
11Principles to be followed S’d be in relation to the selected objectivesS’d be in relation to the real life experiences where the students are expected to practiceThere s’d be effective integration between theory and practiceAccording to the level of studentsThe same learning experience will result in several outcomes and several learning experience may bring out same outcomeS’d be constantly motivating
12S’d be planned and organized Utilize variety of teaching learning methodsStudents will learn effectively if experiences are satisfactory to themS’d not be beyond the particular stage of development of the studentsS’d be according to the needs of the students and every student s’d be given similar learning experienceS’d provide equal or same chance for all the students
13Characteristics of good learning experience Learning by doingCreate motivation and interestChallengingSatisfy the needs of the timeBring out multiple outcomes in studentsHelp student to acquire needed knowledge, skill and attitudeHelpful in gathering informationS’d be helpful in attaining the educational objective
14Criteria for Selection of Learning Experiences S’d be consistent with the philosophy and objectivesS’d be varied and flexibleOpportunity for self activityOpportunity for development of independent thinking and decision makingS’d be adapted to the needs of the studentsContinuity, correlation and integration of theory and practicePlanned and evaluated co-operatively by the teacher and the studentSelect according to relative importance
153. Organization of Learning Experiences Principles of continuity, sequence and integrationContinuity: building each experiences one after anotherSequence: building one over the other more deeplyIntegration: relating the experiences to get a whole viewVertical (continuity and sequence)and horizontal organization(integration)
16Principles to be followed Succeeding experiences are build upon preceding onesLearning experiences in one area s’d be related to other areasUtilize allotted time in a cost effective mannerProvide opportunities for the student to concentrate and relate the various activities
17Provide opportunities to concentrate on one or more objectives Organize in terms of broad subject matter areasNeither too flexible nor too rigidClinical experiences and assignments s’d be valued on the basis of experiences providedOrganize so as to practice professional nursing
18Elements of Organization of Learning Experiences Grouping learning experiences under subject headingsPreparation of master planPlacement of learning experience in the total curriculumPreparation of correlation chartOrganization of clinical experienceTeaching system to be followed: complete block/ teaching block, partial block and study day system
19EVALUATION OF CURRICULUM CURRICULUM EVALUATION involves an assessment of the philosophy of the institution, goals of the institution, nursing content taught in each course, course objectives, teaching- learning methods, course evaluation methods and the relationship of non nursing courses to the overall plan of study.
21NEED FOR CURRICULUM EVALUATION It determines the value of the curriculum.To find out the cause for defective curriculum.It clarify objectives and also to know the extent of objectives achieved. it leads to the improvement of institution, teaching-learning process.To diagnose difficulties in curriculum process.To gather information for administrative purpose.To provide quality control in education.
22PRINCIPLES OF CURRICULUM EVALUATION Consists of finding out to what extend the objectives are being achieved.Objectives for evaluation should be in terms of behaviourBe comprehensive enough to measure adequately the significant behaviour.Techniques and methods used in evaluation should be on the basis of specific behaviors expected and measured.
23PRINCIPLES CONTD….Include a variety of evaluation tools or instrument.The decision on whether the student has had adequate experience in a given area should be in terms of excellence of performance and not in terms of time spent.Record of clinical practice should reflect the objectives of practice and give evidence of the extent to which students have achieved the objectives
24CURRICULUM REVISIONMeans changing or altering the existing curriculum and making the curriculum different in some way.To improve the existing curriculumAlteration can be in any area where there is a deficitThe philosophy, objectives, courses, teaching – learning methods or evaluatory proceduresApproaches: Addition , deletion or reorganization
25NEED FOR CURRICULUM CHANGE To restructure the curriculum according to the needs of learner’s society.To eliminate unnecessary units, teaching methods and contents.To introduce latest and updated methods of teaching and content, new knowledge and practices.