Presentation on theme: "Curriculum development is defined as the process of selecting, organizing, executing and evaluating the learning experiences on the basis of the needs,"— Presentation transcript:
Curriculum development is defined as the process of selecting, organizing, executing and evaluating the learning experiences on the basis of the needs, abilities, and interest of learners, and on the basis of the nature of the society or community. CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT
Principles of curriculum development 1.The conservative principle 2.The forward looking principle 3.The creative principle 4.Principle of totality form 5.Activity principle 6.Preparation for life 7.Principle of connecting to life 8.Child centered 9.Integration and correlation
10. Comprehensiveness and balance 11.Principle of loyalties 12.Variety and flexibility 13.Connecting to community needs 14.Connecting with social life 15.Leisure 16.Core and common subjects 17.All round development 18.Democracy, secularism and socialism 19.Dignity of labour 20.Principle of character building
Major Factors Which Influence Curriculum Development in Nursing Education Philosophy of nursing education Educational psychology Society Student Knowledge explosion and scientific advancements Technological advancements in patient care Educational technology Transnational career opportunities Resources
STEPS IN CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT According to Ralph Tyler 1.Formulation of Educational Objectives 2.Selection of Learning Experiences 3.Organization of Learning Experiences 4.Evaluation of the curriculum
1. Formulation of Educational Objectives Data required for formulating educational objectives ―Philosophy ―Needs of the society ―Needs of the student ―Resources available in the society ―Level of the students ―Specifications of positions to be held by the student on the completion of the programme ―Minimum facilities required ―Future trends
Criteria for selection and statement of objectives – State in terms of desired changes in behaviour – Should be helpful in selecting learning experience – S’d be consistent with the accepted educational objective – Objectives for the specific subjects or units s’d contribute to the attainment of overall objective – S’d be attainable and practicable – Worthwhile and contribute to the needs of the society – Consider the needs, ability and level of students – s’d contribute to the continued and total development of the students
– S’d serve as a motivating factor for the teachers as well as the students – S’d be easily acceptable and understandable – S’d maintain continuity, sequence, correlation and integration of learning activities – Co-operatively planned and developed – Each statement s’d contain only a single objective – S’d be simple and concise in nature – S’d plan the scheme of evaluation
Steps in the Formulation of Educational Objectives 1.Identify the needs of the learner 2.Identify the needs of the society 3.Study the suggestions of the experts 4.Formulate the philosophy 5.State the objectives gathered from various sources in a proper way 6.Formulate a theory of learning 7.Screen the objectives through educational philosophy and educational psychology and select the appropriate ones 8.Define the objectives clearly 9.State in terms of behavioural outcomes
2. Selection of Learning Experiences Learning Experience: deliberately planned experiences in selected situations where students actively participate, interact and which result in desirable changes in the behaviour of the students
Principles to be followed S’d be in relation to the selected objectives S’d be in relation to the real life experiences where the students are expected to practice There s’d be effective integration between theory and practice According to the level of students The same learning experience will result in several outcomes and several learning experience may bring out same outcome S’d be constantly motivating
S’d be planned and organized Utilize variety of teaching learning methods Students will learn effectively if experiences are satisfactory to them S’d not be beyond the particular stage of development of the students S’d be according to the needs of the students and every student s’d be given similar learning experience S’d provide equal or same chance for all the students
Characteristics of good learning experience Learning by doing Create motivation and interest Challenging Satisfy the needs of the time Bring out multiple outcomes in students Help student to acquire needed knowledge, skill and attitude Helpful in gathering information S’d be helpful in attaining the educational objective
Criteria for Selection of Learning Experiences S’d be consistent with the philosophy and objectives S’d be varied and flexible Opportunity for self activity Opportunity for development of independent thinking and decision making S’d be adapted to the needs of the students Continuity, correlation and integration of theory and practice Planned and evaluated co-operatively by the teacher and the student Select according to relative importance
3. Organization of Learning Experiences Principles of continuity, sequence and integration Continuity: building each experiences one after another Sequence: building one over the other more deeply Integration: relating the experiences to get a whole view Vertical (continuity and sequence)and horizontal organization(integration)
Principles to be followed Succeeding experiences are build upon preceding ones Learning experiences in one area s’d be related to other areas Utilize allotted time in a cost effective manner Provide opportunities for the student to concentrate and relate the various activities
Provide opportunities to concentrate on one or more objectives Organize in terms of broad subject matter areas Neither too flexible nor too rigid Clinical experiences and assignments s’d be valued on the basis of experiences provided Organize so as to practice professional nursing
Elements of Organization of Learning Experiences 1.Grouping learning experiences under subject headings 2.Preparation of master plan 3.Placement of learning experience in the total curriculum 4.Preparation of correlation chart 5.Organization of clinical experience 6.Teaching system to be followed: complete block/ teaching block, partial block and study day system
EVALUATION OF CURRICULUM CURRICULUM EVALUATION involves an assessment of the philosophy of the institution, goals of the institution, nursing content taught in each course, course objectives, teaching- learning methods, course evaluation methods and the relationship of non nursing courses to the overall plan of study.
NEED FOR CURRICULUM EVALUATION It determines the value of the curriculum. To find out the cause for defective curriculum. It clarify objectives and also to know the extent of objectives achieved. it leads to the improvement of institution, teaching-learning process. To diagnose difficulties in curriculum process. To gather information for administrative purpose. To provide quality control in education.
PRINCIPLES OF CURRICULUM EVALUATION Consists of finding out to what extend the objectives are being achieved. Objectives for evaluation should be in terms of behaviour Be comprehensive enough to measure adequately the significant behaviour. Techniques and methods used in evaluation should be on the basis of specific behaviors expected and measured.
PRINCIPLES CONTD…. Include a variety of evaluation tools or instrument. The decision on whether the student has had adequate experience in a given area should be in terms of excellence of performance and not in terms of time spent. Record of clinical practice should reflect the objectives of practice and give evidence of the extent to which students have achieved the objectives
CURRICULUM REVISION Means changing or altering the existing curriculum and making the curriculum different in some way. To improve the existing curriculum Alteration can be in any area where there is a deficit The philosophy, objectives, courses, teaching – learning methods or evaluatory procedures Approaches: Addition, deletion or reorganization
NEED FOR CURRICULUM CHANGE To restructure the curriculum according to the needs of learner’s society. To eliminate unnecessary units, teaching methods and contents. To introduce latest and updated methods of teaching and content, new knowledge and practices.