2Learning GoalsDefine management and the skills necessary for managerial success.Explain the role of vision and ethical standards.Summarize the benefits of planning and distinguish strategic, tactical, and operational planning.Describe the strategic planning process.Contrast the types of business decisions and list the steps in the decision-making process.Define leadership and compare different styles of leadership.Discuss the meaning and importance of corporate culture.Identify forms of departmentalization and types of organization structures.15263748
3What is Management?Management is the process of achieving organizational objectives through people and other resources.Although some companies maintain a very simple structure and relationship with employees, many organizations have complex hierarchies that include multiple levels. Management falls into three levels: Top, Middle and Supervisory.
4Top ManagementDevelop long-range strategic plans for the organization.Inspire executives and employees to achieve their vision for the company’s future.The highest level of management is top management, which includes key executives: vice president, CEO, CFO, and other top managers. Activities at this level focus on the long-range direction of the organization.
5Middle ManagementFocus on specific operations, products, or customer groups within an organization.Responsible for developing detailed plans and procedures to implement the firm’s strategic plans.Middle managers include general managers, plant managers, division managers and branch managers. Middle managers focus on specific tasks and plans that are more detailed than top management.
6Supervisory Management Implement the plans developed by middle managers.Responsible for non- manager employees.Motivate workers to accomplish daily, weekly, and monthly goals.The first-line managers are directly responsible for the customer relationships. Supervisory management includes supervisor, section chief, team leader and store manager. These managers work directly with employees who do the work of the daily operation.
7Skills Needed for Management Success Technical skillsManager’s ability to understand and use the techniques, knowledge, and tools and equipment of a specific discipline or department.Human skillsInterpersonal skills that enable a manager to work effectively with and through people.Conceptual skillsAbility to see the organization as a unified whole and to understand how each part of the overall organization interacts with other parts.Managers must maintain and balance a toolbox full of skill. They must be able to do the work they are managing. These technical skills are important. They must be able to connect and lead employees using their human skills and ultimately they must be able to see the “big picture.” Conceptual skills aid managers in understanding decisions for the entire organization.
8Managerial Functions Planning Controlling Organizing Directing Process of determining courses of action for achieving organizational objectives.OrganizingBlending human and material resources through a formal structure of authority.DirectingGuiding and motivating employees to accomplish organizational objectives.ControllingEvaluating an organization’s performance to determine whether it is accomplishing its objectives.Establish performance standards.Monitor actual performance.Compare actual performance with established standards.Take corrective action if required.There are four key functions that managers perform. Each of these functions are different at every level of management but they are all important to every manager. Managers must make plans for the company. They must organize workers and resources. They must also lead and direct the actions of employees. Finally, managers must constantly check on the progress of plans, employees and other goals. Controlling requires four steps: establishing performance, monitoring the performance, comparing the performance to the standard, and then taking corrective action.
9Setting A Vision and Ethical Standards for Them Vision is the perception of marketplace needs and the methods an organization can use to satisfy them.Must be focused yet adaptable to changes in the business environment.Long-term success is also tied to the ethical standards that top executives set.High ethical standard can also encourage, motivate, and inspire employees to achieve goals.A company’s vision should be focused but flexible. Vision serves as the target for a firm's action. Vision should be combined with ethical standards that start with top management. There have been a number of public firms displaying unethical leadership in the news. The publicity has hurt many firms and some of them no longer exist due to their lapse in ethics. Ethics is an important long-term view for a firm and must be combined with the firm’s vision.
10Importance of Planning There are different types and levels of plansOrganizations should have a comprehensive planning framework.From mission statement to objectives and goalsNarrow functional plansPlans outline the steps the company will take to meet outlined goals and objectives.Planning is an important process. It takes place at every level of the organization to align efforts from the mission statement to the daily operations.
11Planning at Different Organizational Levels The four levels of planning are conducted by different levels of managers. These different types of plans must be aligned to meet the company goals and objectives.
12The Strategic Planning Process The strategic planning process is broad and determines the over-reaching focus and objectives of the entire organization.The first step in the strategic planning process is defining the company’s mission statement. The mission is the written explanation of an organization’s intentions.During the strategic planning process, the organization must assess its competitive position. It must examine the factors that may help or hinder the organization.Once an organization has begun to focus its mission and identify opportunities, the firm will set objectives. Objectives are the guideposts by which managers define the organization’s desired performance. Managers think about profitability, customer service, growth, and employee satisfaction.Developing a mission statement and setting objectives point a business toward a specific destination. The firm then needs to map the strategies it will follow to compete with other companies pursuing similar missions and objectives.Once the four phases of the strategic planning process are complete, managers must implement them. They must identify the specific points at which resources are needed.The final step in the strategic planning process which follows implementation – monitoring and adapting plans. Monitoring requires matching performance with expectation by adapting plans when performance fails.
13SWOT AnalysisThe SWOT analysis is a tool to help in the strategic planning process. The SWOT analysis is an organized approach to assessing a company’s internal strengths and weaknesses and its external opportunities and threats.
14Managers as Decision Makers Decision making is the process of recognizing a problem or opportunity, evaluating alternative solutions, selecting and implementing an alternative, and assessing the results.Programmed decision involves simple, common problems with predetermined solutions.Nonprogrammed decision involves a complex, unique problem or opportunity with important consequences for the organization.In addition to decisions in the planning process, managers make a variety of decisions every day, all day long. Some decisions are common while many can be more challenging. Programmed decisions may include reordering supplies, creating a discount schedule or setting a new salary for a new employee. There are rules and policies that exist to help guide these decisions. Nonprogrammed decisions are more challenging. They are not routine. A decision to enter a new market, acquire a company and introduce a new product are all examples of nonprogrammed decisions.
15How Managers Make Decisions Making good decisions is never easy, as they always involve some risk. Once a problem is identified, good managers use the systemic approach to decision-making. This is a five-step process that starts with problem recognition and ends with follow-up.
16Managers as LeadersLeadership is the ability to direct or inspire people to attain organizational goals.Involves the use of influence or power.Three traits are common among many leaders:EmpathySelf-awarenessObjectivity in dealing with othersLeadership involves the use of influence or power. Leadership is the most visible component of a manger’s responsibility. It is important because managers use their leadership to guide employees to meet goals and objectives. Although every leader’s leadership style differs, there are three common traits of good leaders.
17Autocratic Leadership Democratic Leadership Leadership StylesAutocratic LeadershipMake decisions on own without consulting employees.Democratic LeadershipInvolve employees in decisions, delegate assignments and ask employees for suggestions.There is no perfect leadership style. And, leadership does not mean tight control. Leadership styles range from autocratic leaders who make all the decisions to free-rein leaders who let employees make all of the decisions. An important trend in leadership is empowerment, a practice in which managers lead employees by sharing power, responsibility, and decision making with them.Free-Rein LeadershipLeave most decisions to employees.
18Corporate Culture Corporate Culture Organizations system of principles, beliefs, and values.Managerial philosophies,communications networks, andworkplace environments andpractices all influence corporateculture.Corporate culture is typically shaped by the leaders who founded and developed the company and by those who have succeeded them. Corporate culture can be changed, but that is challenging. Strong culture is where everyone knows and supports the same principles, beliefs, and values. A weak or constantly shifting culture has a lack of a clear sense of purpose.
19Organizational Structures Organization: structured grouping of people working together to achieve common goals.Three key elements:Human interactionGoal-directed activitiesStructureOrganization structure is the process of blending human and material resources through a formal structure of tasks and authority.
20Organizational ChartOrganizational charts are used to help employees understand how their work fits within the overall operation of the firm. The organizational chart is a visual representation of the firm’s structure.
21DepartmentalizationProduct departmentalization: organized based on the goods and services a company offers.Geographical departmentalization: organized by geographical regions within a country or, for a multinational firm, by region throughout the world.Customer departmentalization: organized by the different types of customers the organization serves.Functional departmentalization: organized by business functions such as finance, marketing, human resources, and production.Process departmentalization: organized by work processes necessary to complete production of goods or services.Departmentalization is the process of dividing work activities into units within the organization. There are five major ways in which companies departmentalize. Companies choose a structure based on their organization and its goals.
22Different Forms of Departmentalization Many companies combine the different types of departmentalization to build their structure.
23Delegating Work Assignments Delegation is the act of assigning work activities to subordinates.The responsibility and the necessary authority for completing the tasks.Employees have accountability, or responsibility for the results of the way they perform their assignments.Authority and responsibility move down; accountability moves up.Span of management is the number of subordinates, or direct reports, a supervisor manages.Centralization: decision making is retained at the top of the management hierarchy.Decentralization: decision making is located at the lower levels. Many firms believe it enhances their flexibility and responsiveness to customer needs.There are a variety of concepts that managers must think about as they build their organizational structures. Managers will often delegate work to employees, but delegation requires responsibility, accountability, and authority. Managers must also think about how many people report to each manager. In some organizations, the span of management is wide. Depending on the type of subordinates, managers must think about their span of management. Managers must also think about who can make decisions. Is decision-making centralized among top management or is it shared throughout the organization? Decentralization allows organizations to operate more flexibly and responsively to customers.
24Types of Organization Structures Line OrganizationsOldest and simplest form; direct flow of authority from CEO to subordinates.Chain of command indicates who directs which activities and who reports to whom.Line-and-Staff OrganizationsCombines line departments and staff departments.Line departments participate directly in decisions that affect the core operations of the organization.Staff departments lend specialized technical support.Line organizations have a clear and simple chain of command. Organizations with staff functions have departments/employees that support line departments. Staff may include legal, marketing or human resource support to an organization.
25Line and Staff Organizations Note the support functions of the staff. They do not have direct authority over the plant operations but they support the department.
26Committee Organizations Authority and responsibility are in the hands of a group of individuals.Often part of a line-and-staff structure.Often develop new products.Tend to act slowly and conservatively.Often make decisions by compromising conflicting interests rather than choosing best alternative.A committee structure empowers all of the members instead of a single manager. Some committees act slowly and conservatively. Some committees include a diverse group of employees from across the company with different skills and expertise.
27Matrix OrganizationsProject management structure that links employees from different parts of the organization to work together on specific projects.Employees report to a line manager and a project manager.Advantages:Flexibility in adapting to changes.Focus on major problems or products.Outlet for employees’ creativity and initiative.Challenges:Integrating skills of many specialists into a coordinated team.Employee frustration and confusion over reporting to two bosses.In the matrix organization, employees have two managers. The matrix organization has become popular at high-technology and multinational corporations. The major benefits come from its flexibility.
28The Matrix Organizations The matrix organization links employees from different parts of the organization to work together on specific projects.