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Supervision in Organizations

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Presentation on theme: "Supervision in Organizations"— Presentation transcript:

1 Supervision in Organizations
Chapter 1 Defining the Supervisor’s Job

2 Learning Outcomes After reading this chapter, I will be able to:
Explain the difference between supervisors, middle managers, and top managers. Identify the four functions in the management process; Describe the four essential supervisory competencies; and Identify the elements that are necessary to be successful as a supervisor.

3 Organizations & Their Levels
A systematic arrangement of people brought together to accomplish some specific purpose; applies to all organizations—for-profit as well as not-for-profit organizations. Common characteristics Set of Goals (has a purpose) Structure (structure defines roles of employees/limits work behavior) People

4 Common Characteristics of Organizations
An organization is a systematic arrangement of people to accomplish some specific purpose. Every organization has a purpose, people or members, and a systematic structure. The purpose of an organization is expressed in terms of a goal or set of goals. Within the organization’s structure, its employees strive to achieve these goals.

5 People Differences Operatives Managers
People who work directly on a job or task and have no responsibility for overseeing the work of others. Managers Individuals in an organization who direct the activities of others.

6 Organizational Levels
We can categorize organizational members in two ways. Operatives work directly on a job or task and have no responsibility for overseeing the work of others. Managers direct the activities of other people in the organization. Usually classified as top, middle, or first-line, managers supervise both operative and lower-level managers. First-line managers supervise the day-to-day activities of operative employees. Middle managers represent the level of management between first-line managers and top management. These managers translate the goals of top management into specific details that lower-level managers can perform. Top managers make decisions about the direction of the organization and set policies that affect all organizational members.

7 Identifying Managers First-line managers Middle managers Top managers
Supervisors responsible for directing the day-to-day activities of operative employees Middle managers Individuals at levels of management between the first-line manager and top management Top managers Individuals who are responsible for making decisions about the direction of the organization and establishing policies that affect all organizational members

8 Organizational Levels
Operative Employees: employees that physically produce an organization’s goods & services don’t manage or oversee work Examples: Assembly Line Worker UPS Driver Doctors Lawyers Accountants Engineers

9 Organizational Levels cont…
Top Management: Group of people responsible for establishing the organization’s overall objectives and developing policies to achieve that objectives. Examples: Chief Executive Officer (CEO) Chairman of the Board Senior Vice President Superintendent of Schools Governor

10 Organizational Levels cont…
Middle Managers: individuals responsible for establishing and meeting specific goals in their particular department or unit. Examples: V.P. for Finance Director of Sales Division Manager Group Manager Unit Manager School Principals

11 Organizational Levels cont…
Supervisor (first-level manager): employed in overseeing skilled and semi-skilled workers (operative employees) in industry, and manage employees in retail sales and in offices. Examples: Department Chair Head Coach Foreman Team Leader Shift Leader/Captain

12 How Do We Define Management?
The process of getting things done, effectively and efficiently, through and with other people Efficiency Means doing the task correctly; refers to the relationship between inputs and outputs; seeks to minimize resource costs Effectiveness Means doing the right task; goal attainment

13 Efficiency and Effectiveness
The term management refers to the process of getting things done, through other people, in an efficient and effective manner. Process refers to the primary functions that managers perform. Referring to inputs and outputs, doing the task right is being efficient. Doing the right task is being effective. So, managers are concerned not only with attaining goals (effectiveness) but also attaining them efficiently.

14 Management Process Activities
Most experts on the subject of management endorse the concept of four basic interdependent management functions. Planning consists of several elements: defining an organization’s goals, establishing a strategy to achieve them, and developing a structure to coordinate goal achievement activities. Organizing includes determining what tasks will be done, who will do them, how the tasks will be grouped, who will report to whom, and where decisions will be made. Leading involves motivating employees, directing the activities of others, selecting effective communication channels, and resolving conflicts. Controlling includes monitoring the organization’s performance, comparing it with previously set goals, and correcting deviations to keep the organization on course. Management process: planning, organizing, leading, and controlling

15 Management Processes Planning Organizing
Includes defining organizational goals, establishing overall strategy to achieve goals, and developing comprehensive plans to integrate and coordinate activities Organizing Includes determining what tasks to be done, who is to do them, how the tasks are to be grouped, who reports to whom, and where decisions are to be made

16 Management Processes (cont’d)
Leading Includes motivating employees, directing the activities of others, selecting the most effective communication channel, and resolving conflicts Controlling The process of monitoring performance, comparing it with goals, and correcting any significant deviations

17 Changing Expectations of Supervisors
Roles of Supervisors: Key Person – serve as the critical communication link in the organization’s chain of authority Person in the Middle – interact & reconcile the opposing forces & competing expectations from higher management & workers. Just another Worker – many times excluded from decision making. Behavioral Specialist – must be able to understand the varied needs of their staff & able to listen, motivate, & lead.

18 The Transition from Employee to Supervisor
Where Do Supervisors Come From? Supervisory positions are recruited from: Colleges & Universities Within the ranks of employees (most common) Other firms Reasons for promoting operative employees to Supervisors: Job knowledge & experience Familiarity with company policies and procedures Know the people they will be supervising

19 The Transition from Employee to Supervisor cont…
Research identified 19 major problems new supervisors experienced in their first year: Their initial view of the manager as boss was incorrect. (perceived power); Being unprepared for the demands & ambiguities they would face (simultaneous problems to be solved); Technical expertise was no longer a determinant of success; The administrative duties (paperwork); and Being unprepared for the “people challenges” of their new job.

20 Do You Really Want to be a Supervisor
Realities of Being a Supervisor Success is defined differently Success does not depend on your performance, it depends on the performance of people your supervise. Long Work Hours Arrive before operative employees and leave after Endless Paperwork Time Cards Productivity Report Inventory Report Pay Hourly or Sourly???

21 Supervisory Competencies
Robert Katz identified four critical competencies a supervisor must possess to be successful: Technical – ability to apply specialized knowledge Interpersonal – ability to work with, understand, communicate with, & motivate others, both individually & in groups Conceptual – mental ability to analyze & diagnose complex situations Political Competencies – ability to enhance his/her power, build power base, & establish the “right” connections in the organization

22 Supervisory Competencies cont…
Competencies shift by management level Technical competence declines in importance as individuals rise in the organization; Interpersonal competencies are a constant for success, regardless of the level in the organization; and Conceptual & political competencies increase in importance as managerial responsibilities rise.

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