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AKS 47: World War II Chapter 32 – Pages 925-951 Early Challenges to World Peace Sept. 1931: Japan Invades Manchuria; Withdraws from League of Nations.

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Presentation on theme: "AKS 47: World War II Chapter 32 – Pages 925-951 Early Challenges to World Peace Sept. 1931: Japan Invades Manchuria; Withdraws from League of Nations."— Presentation transcript:

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2 AKS 47: World War II Chapter 32 – Pages 925-951

3 Early Challenges to World Peace Sept. 1931: Japan Invades Manchuria; Withdraws from League of Nations World Reaction?: W. nations did not want to get involved b/c they had their own problems to deal with Result: Continue aggression

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5 World Reaction?: League of Nations ordered sanctions against Italy Refused to sell them weapons, continued to sell them oil Refused to get involved for fear of another conflict Result: Italy defeated Ethiopia Early Challenges to World Peace Oct. 1935: Italy invades Ethiopia

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7 Early Challenges to World Peace July 1936: Spanish Civil War Begins March 1936: German troops occupy Rhineland Oct. 1936 Hitler & Mussolini sign Rome-Berlin Axis July 1937: Japan invades China

8 Early Challenges to World Peace Sept. 1938: Munich Conference Hitler promised British Prime Minister Chamberlain he would leave Europe alone if given Sudetenland (appeasement)

9 Early Challenges to World Peace Sept. 1938: Munich Conference Oct. 1938 – Germany occupies Sudetenland 6 Months Later – Takes all of Czechoslovakia – clear at this point appeasement won’t work

10 Early Challenges to World Peace Aug. 1939: Hitler & Stalin sign Nazi-Soviet Pact Advantages for Hitler: Removal of threat of attack from the east Division of Poland Advantages for Stalin: Division of Poland Takeover of Finland & Baltic countries Safety from German attack

11 Early Challenges to World Peace Sept. 1, 1939: Germany invades Poland Hitler’s Strategy: Blitzkrieg – “lightning war” Use fast-moving mechanized weapons Planes, Tanks, Artillery, Infantry – all at ONCE!!! Poland fell in ONE month!

12 Early Challenges to World Peace Sept. 3, 1939: Britain & France Declare War on Germany WORLD WAR II OFFICIALLY BEGINS!!!

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14 The European Campaign April 1940: Hitler invades Denmark & Norway; Heads for France Hitler’s Plan: Pave a way to France & distract Allies by invading Holland, Belgium, & Luxembourg, then send massive force through the Ardennes Forest

15 The European Campaign June 1940: France Surrenders What Happened at Dunkirk?: Britain rescued Allied soldiers stranded at Dunkirk & ferried them to safety across the English Channel

16 The European Campaign July 1940: Battle of Britain What Happened?: German Luftwaffe (Air Force) bombed British cities for 3 months Goal: Hitler wanted to destroy British morale before invading Outcome: RAF fighters & British resistance forced Germany to call off the attack – Hitler could be stopped!

17 The European Campaign Sept. 1940 Italy moves to seize Egypt & Suez Canal Feb. 1941 Hitler sends Gen. Rommel to help Italian troops seize Egypt & Suez Canal

18 The European Campaign June 1941: Hitler Invades Soviet Union Why?: Hitler wanted the territory Felt his army was capable of fighting a war on two fronts (Eastern Front in USSR & and Western in France)

19 Warm-Up

20 The European Campaign July 1942: Battle of El Alamein What Happened?: Gen. Montgomery vs. Gen. Rommel Forced Rommel and his forces to retreat westward from Egypt Operation Torch: Gen. Eisenhower arrived with American troops in N. Africa

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22 The European Campaign July 1942: Battle of El Alamein Result: Trapped Rommel’s forces b/w American & British & finally defeated Rommel’s Afrika Korps

23 The European Campaign July 1942-Feb.1943: Battle of Stalingrad Outcome: Hitler attacked, Soviets eventually put German forces on defensive with Soviets pushing them westward

24 The European Campaign July 1942-Feb.1943: Battle of Stalingrad Comparison to Napoleon: In both invasions, Russia’s terrible winter & its strategy of destroying everything in the enemy’s path created severe hardships for the invaders

25 The European Campaign Sept. 1943: Invasion of Italy Outcome: Resulted in Allied conquest of Sicily & forced eventual surrender of Italy

26 The European Campaign Nov.-Dec. 1943 Tehran Conference

27 Tehran Conference When? November 28-December 1, 1943

28 Tehran Conference Members Present? Franklin Roosevelt (USA) Winston Churchill (Britain) Joseph Stalin (USSR)

29 Tehran Conference Purpose of Meeting? Coordinate military strategy against Germany & Japan Decide on important issues of post- WWII era

30 Tehran Conference What was decided? Coordination of D-Day invasion Poland’s post-war borders First discussions about splitting up Germany into zones of occupation First discussions of the future United Nations between Stalin & FDR *Many issues left for final decisions at later conferences

31 The European Campaign June 6, 1944: D-Day Invasion Outcome: 800,000 Allies landed at Normandy Beach Opened a 2 nd front in Europe Led to liberation of France, Belgium, Luxembourg, & much of Netherlands from Nazi occupation

32 The European Campaign Dec. 1944: Battle of the Bulge Outcome: German’s final attack in Ardennes Forest Patton marched his army 100 miles in 2 days & attacked w/ 3 division to save the line Resulted in heavy losses for Hitler

33 The European Campaign Feb. 1945: Yalta Conference

34 Yalta Conference When? February 4-11, 1945

35 Yalta Conference Members Present? Franklin Roosevelt (USA) Winston Churchill (Britain) Joseph Stalin (USSR)

36 Yalta Conference Purpose of Meeting? Make final decisions about the end of the war

37 Yalta Conference What was decided? Divide Germany into 4 zones controlled by Allied military forces Germany must pay the USSR Stalin agreed to join war against Japan 90 days after end of war in Europe Stalin promised free elections in Eastern Europe

38 The European Campaign April 1945: Leaders Fall Italy: Mussolini captured & killed by Italians USA: April 12: President Roosevelt dies & Vice- President Harry Truman becomes President Germany: April 30: Hitler & other top Nazis commit suicide

39 The European Campaign May 8, 1945: V-E Day (Victory in Europe) Germany surrenders July-Aug. 1945 Potsdam Conference

40 Warm-Up

41 Pacific Campaign Dec. 7, 1941: Japan Bombs Pearl Harbor What Happened? Japanese launched surprise attack sinking or damaging almost the entire U.S. Pacific fleet – used kamikazes (suicide pilots)

42 Pacific Campaign Dec. 7, 1941: Japan Bombs Pearl Harbor Outcome of the Attack? U.S. declares war on Japan

43 Pacific Campaign Dec. 1941-May 1942: Battle of the Philippines What Happened? Japan invaded Philippine Islands Filipinos & U.S. under Gen. Douglas MacArthur defended the islands General Douglas MacArthur

44 Pacific Campaign Dec. 1941-May 1942: Battle of the Philippines Outcome/Significance of the Battle? Japan wins Perseverance of U.S. & Filipino defense delayed Japanese attacks on other areas

45 Pacific Campaign Fall of Southeast Asian Colonies What Happened? Through a planned series of attacks, Japan seized control of rich European colonies Ex: French Indochina, British Hong Kong Significance of the Attack? Helped Japan replenish depleted resources

46 Pacific Campaign April 1942: Doolittle’s Raid on Japan What Happened? As revenge for Pearl Harbor, U.S. sent 16 B-25 bombers to bomb Japanese cities, mainly Tokyo

47 Pacific Campaign April 1942: Doolittle’s Raid on Japan Significance of the Attack? Showed that Japan could be attacked Raised American morale

48 Pacific Campaign May 1942: Battle of the Coral Sea What Happened? Following interception of Japanese attack on Port Moresby, Japanese & American naval fleets fought to a draw (nobody won)

49 Pacific Campaign May 1942: Battle of the Coral Sea Significance of the Battle? Introduced a new kind of naval warfare using only airplanes Stopped Japan’s expansion southward

50 Pacific Campaign June 1942: Battle of Midway What Happened? American carrier planes defeated Japanese fleet poised to attack Midway Island, a key American airfield

51 Pacific Campaign June 1942: Battle of Midway Significance of the Battle? Reversed the tide of the war in the Pacific

52 Pacific Campaign Aug. 1942-Feb. 1943: Battle of Guadalcanal What Happened? U.S. Marines, with Australian support, seized Japanese airfield & fought on land & sea for control of island

53 Pacific Campaign Aug. 1942-Feb. 1943: Battle of Guadalcanal Significance of the Battle? Forced Japan to abandon island Began MacArthur’s island-hopping counterattack Take one island at a time, use it for a base

54 Pacific Campaign Oct. 1944: Battle of Leyte Gulf Wiped out Japanese Navy

55 Pacific Campaign Feb.-March 1945: Battle of Iwo Jima  U.S. Marines raise the Stars and Stripes after their victory at Iwo Jima

56 Pacific Campaign March-June 1945: Battle of Okinawa Resulted in heavy losses for Japanese Moved Allies closer to an invasion of Japanese homeland

57 Aug. 6: Truman decides to drop bomb on Hiroshima (attempt to save lives) Pacific Campaign Aug. 1945: Bombings of Hiroshima & Nagasaki

58 Aug. 9: Second bomb dropped on Nagasaki Aug. 10: VJ-Day (Victory in Japan) – Japan surrenders!!

59 Warm-Up

60 The Holocaust Who…? …were the victims of the Holocaust? Non-Aryan peoples, primarily Jews, but also Gypsies, Slavs, etc.

61 The Holocaust Who…? …were members of the “master race”? Aryans The signs read: “Germans! Defend Yourselves! Do not buy from Jews!”

62 The Holocaust What…? …were the Nuremberg Laws? German laws depriving Jews of rights to citizenship & jobs

63 The Holocaust What…? …happened on the night of November 9, 1938? On Kristallnacht, the Nazis launched a violent attack on Jewish communities all over Germany

64 The Holocaust What…? …was Hitler’s “Final Solution”? Systematic killing of entire groups of people, particularly Jews, whom the Nazis saw as inferior

65 The Holocaust Where…? …did German Jews try to migrate to find safety from Nazi terror? France, Britain, USA, & other countries

66 The Holocaust Where…? …were Jews forced to live in German- controlled cities? In ghettos – segregated Jewish areas

67 The Holocaust Where…? …were the concentration camps? Mainly in Germany & Poland

68 The Holocaust Why…? …did Hitler believe that Jews & other “subhumans” had to be exterminated? To protect the purity of the Aryan race

69 The Holocaust Why…? …did the Germans build extermination camps? To carry out mass murders in huge gas chambers

70 The Holocaust When…? …did the final stage of the Final Solution begin? Early 1942

71 The Holocaust How…? …did non-Jewish people try to save Jews from the horrors of Nazism? By hiding Jews in their homes or helping them escape to neutral countries  Anne Frank

72 The Holocaust How…? …many Jews died in the Holocaust? Approximately 6,000,000

73 Nuremberg Trials Nazis put on trial for crimes against humanity (events of Holocaust) Goal was to punish Nazi officials using a democratic system

74 Japanese Internment Camps in the United States Japanese-Americans placed in camps Why? – feared they were enemies or spies after bombing at Pearl Harbor

75 Warm-Up

76 Potsdam Conference When? July 17-August 2, 1945

77 Potsdam Conference Members Present? Harry Truman (USA) Joseph Stalin (USSR) Winston Churchill & later Clement Attlee (Britain) THE BIG THREE

78 Potsdam Conference Purpose of Meeting? Clarify agreements from Yalta

79 Potsdam Conference What was decided? Potsdam Declaration Unconditional surrender of Japan Japanese disarmament, establishment of democratic government Postwar European borders (especially Poland)

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81 Formation of the United Nations The Beginning Stalin & FDR secretly discussed ideas for U.N. at Tehran Conference 1944: Britain, China, USSR, & met in D.C. & drafted the 1 st charter

82 Formation of the United Nations First Meeting April 1945 in San Francisco Delegates from 50 nations worked for 2 months to develop the official charter

83 Formation of the United Nations Details & Purpose Purpose: peacekeeping organization designed to protect its members against aggression Permanent Members of Security Council: USA, Britain, USSR, France, China

84 Marshall Plan for Europe Who…? …proposed the plan? U.S. Secretary of State George Marshall

85 Marshall Plan for Europe When…? …did he propose the plan? 1947

86 Marshall Plan for Europe What…? …did he propose the U.S. needed to do? Give aid to needy European countries Provide food, machinery, & other materials to rebuild Western Europe & stop Soviet expansion Truman signs Marshall Plan 

87 MacArthur’s Plan for Japan Demilitarization Disbanded Japanese armed forces Left Japanese with small police force

88 MacArthur’s Plan for Japan Democratization Created a gov’t elected by the people Set up a constitutional monarchy b/c Japanese wanted to keep emperor

89 MacArthur’s Plan for Japan Other Reforms Land ownership was expanded Independent labor unions had the right to form Increase participation of workers & farmers in new democracy


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