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Origins of the Cold War – Part II

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1 Origins of the Cold War – Part II

2 Iran Controversy (1946) In Sept. 1944, the British had set up the Anglo-Iranian Oil Company, which received a deal to operate most of the oilfields The Soviets also tried to obtain a deal, but failed

3 Iran Controversy (1946) After WWII ended, Stalin broke an agreement to remove his troops from Iran’s northernmost province He had occupied the land during WWII with British and American approval Why? The Soviets needed the oil It was a supply line to the USSR The Shah was pro-German during the war

4 Iran Controversy (1946) When Stalin used his troops to aid a rebel movement, Truman protested and the problem was taken to the UN Security Council The USSR backed down

5 Containment (1946) Developed by a young diplomat and State Department Soviet specialist, George F. Kennan The United States would resist Soviet attempts to form Communist governments elsewhere in the world The U.S. would not invade nations who were currently communist It confirmed a policy of internationalism

6 Containment (1946) By 1949, Europe was divided into two rival camps, each with their own political, economic, and military alliances Truman ordered development of a hydrogen bomb A peace treaty with Japan was accepted to guarantee long-term U.S. military bases The U.S. became the “world policeman,” involved in conflicts all over the world McCarthyism, a period of intense anti-communism, erupted in 1948

7 Truman Doctrine (1947) The Soviets appeared aggressive in Iran, Turkey, and Greece In March 1947, the Truman Doctrine was created The policy of the United States must be to support and assist free people who are resisting conquest by armed minorities or by outside pressures Supported containment of communism

8 Truman Doctrine (1947) The Soviet Union wanted control of the Dardanelles (straits in the entrance to the Black Sea) in Turkey and began making threats against them In Greece, Communists fought to overthrow the government that had returned to power after the Axis withdrew

9 Responding to the Truman Doctrine, Congress approved $400 million in aid for Greece and Turkey
Britain was usually the country that would help other, smaller countries in Europe. However, they were bankrupt from the war and unwilling to help

10 Truman Doctrine (1947) Critics have said it: Proponents have said it:
Divided the world into pro-Soviet and pro-American camps Instilled fear that the Soviet threat was primarily military in nature Proponents have said it: Was Truman’s fear of a revived isolationism that led him to exaggerate the Soviet threat It made him pitch his message as a global war against godless communism

11 Origins of the Cold War - The Marshall Plan (1947)
Secretary of State George Marshall created the Marshall Plan Europeans who worked together for a joint plan for their economic recovery would receive aid from the U.S. Aid through the Marshall Plan was intended to create strong democracies and open new markets for American goods The Soviet Union was invited to join, but refused 17 Western European nations joined and received over $13 billion in grant and loans over the next 4 years

12 Origins of the Cold War - The Marshall Plan (1947)
The Soviet response to the Marshall Plan was: Americans were buying their way into European affairs Would’ve had to accept it on difficult terms – making vast political reforms and have outside controls They discouraged their satellite nations from joining as well

13 Origins of the Cold War - The Marshall Plan (1947)
Bilateral trade agreements with Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Yugoslavia, Poland, and Rumania The Cominform was established to strengthen links between various communist parties The Berlin Blockade


15 COMECON (1949) Council for Mutual Economic Assistance (COMECON) was an international organization active between 1949 and 1991 for the coordination of economic policy among certain nations then under Communist domination It was created to mollify nations who expressed interest in the Marshall Plan Its members included Albania, Bulgaria, Cuba, Czechoslovakia, East Germany, Hungary, Mongolia, Poland, Romania, Yugoslavia, and the Soviet Union COMECON created a series of five-year plans (1956–85), but most trade was strictly bilateral; planned economies had limited mechanisms for transferring trade surpluses

16 Red – members Pink – members who did not participate Dark Red – associates Yellow - observers

17 Berlin Blockade (1948) The U.S., Britain, and France united their zones of occupation to form West Berlin The city of Berlin, however, was deep within East Germany, which was Soviet territory

18 Berlin Blockade (1948) Stalin decided on the blockade because:
Berlin was an excuse for U.S. soldiers to travel through the Soviet Zone Western aid caused the difference between West and East Berlin to be dramatic He was angered by the decision of the Western Allies to govern their zones in matters of the economy differently, instead of by unanimity in the ACC He did not wish to risk war through an attack

19 Berlin Blockade (1948) Stalin closed all entrances to West Berlin by train or car in an effort to starve West Berliners into submission The blockade lasted 318 days and forced Berliners to survive on dried potatoes and powdered eggs during the winter of In response, 275,000 Allied flights carried in 1 ½ million tons of supplies In May 1949, the Soviets lifted the blockade

20 Berlin Blockade (1948) The Berlin Blockade worsened the Cold War
By October 1949, Germany was divided into: Federal Republic of Germany (West Germany) German Democratic Republic (East Germany)

21 Origins of the Cold War - NATO
Headquarters in Brussels, Belgium Truman didn’t want the U.S. to be the only nation in the Western Hemisphere pledged to defend Western Europe from the Communists In April 1949, the U.S., Britain, France, and Canada joined 8 other nations in forming NATO, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization. They agreed on collective security, meaning if one nation in NATO was attacked, it would be considered an attack on all of them In response, the Soviet Union created the Warsaw Pact, a similar alliance with its satellite nations in Eastern Europe

22 Nationalists vs Communists In China
A civil war raged for years between Nationalists and communists Washington halfheartedly supported the Nationalist government of Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek against communist leader Mao Zedong Ineptitude and corruption within Chiang Kai-shek’s government eroded the confidence of the people and communist armies overwhelmed the Nationalists In 1949, Chiang fled to the island of Formosa (Taiwan)

23 Nationalists vs Communists In China
Results of the Collapse of Nationalist China ¼ of the world’s population (500 million) became communist. This became a huge issue in the U.S. Republicans highly criticized Truman and the Secretary of State, Dean Acheson, for losing China to communism. They insisted that Democratic agencies were filled with communists and had deliberately withheld aid from Chiang so that he would fall Democrats replied that when a regime has forfeited the support of its people, no amount of outside help will save it. Truman didn’t lose China, Chiang lost it because he never controlled all of China

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