4Focus QuestionsWhat was the role of Andrew Jackson’s presidency in affirming and solidifying the new democratic politics?What part did the transportation revolution play in unifying the nation?How was the basic two-party pattern of American political democracy established?How did writers and artists and their audiences create a distinctive American cultural identity?
5Martin Van Buren Forges a New Kind of Political Community Part TwoMartin Van Buren Forges a New Kind of Political Community
6Martin Van Buren Forges a New Kind of Political Community
7Martin Van Buren Forges a New Kind of Political Community Son of a tavern keeperVan Buren lackedaristocratic connectionsVan Buren built strong party
8The New Democratic Politics in North America Part ThreeThe New Democratic Politics in North America
9Continental Struggles over Popular Rights In 1821, Mexican independence.Santa Anna strongest early presidentIn Haiti, independence destroyed the sugar industry.British Caribbean islands, numerous revolts lead to abolitionUpper and Lower Canada union
10The Expansion and Limits of Suffrage United States more than doubled between 1800 and 1830Trans-Appalachian population grew tenfold.
11MAP 11.1 Population Trends: Westward Expansion, 1830 Westward population movement, a trickle in 1800, had become a flood by Between 1800 and 1830, the U.S. white and African American population more than doubled (from 5.3 million to 12.9 million), but the trans-Appalachian population grew tenfold (from 370,000 to 3.7 million). By 1830, more than a third of the nation’s inhabitants lived west of the original thirteen states.
12The Expansion and Limits of Suffrage 1800, only white, male, property owners could vote in most states.As western states entered Union, suffrage expanded.1820 most older states dropped property qualifications.By 1840, 90 % of adult white males could vote.Women and African Americans were barred from voting.
13MAP 11.2a The Growth of Universal White Male Suffrage Kentucky was the first western state to enact white male suffrage without tax or property qualifications. Other western states followed, and by 1820, most of the older states had dropped their suffrage restrictions as well. By 1840, more than 90 percent of the nation’s white males could vote. But although voting was democratized for white men, restrictions on free African American male voters grew tighter, and women were excluded completely.
14MAP 11.2b The Growth of Universal White Male Suffrage
15FIGURE 11.1 Race Exclusions for Suffrage: 1790–1855 This graph shows clearly that as more states entered the Union, laws excluding African American men from voting increased. SOURCE:Alexander Keyssar,The Right to Vote (New York:Basic Books,2000)p.56.
16The Election of 1824 1824 election marked end to Era of Good Feelings Four candidates ran for the presidency.Jackson won popular vote.John Quincy Adams won due to so-called “corrupt bargain.”Adams’s initiatives blocked by Congress.
17MAP 11.3 The Election of 1824 The presidential vote of 1824 was clearly sectional. John Quincy Adams carried his native New England and little else, Henry Clay carried only his own state of Kentucky and two adjoining states, and Crawford’s appeal was limited to Virginia and Georgia. Only Andrew Jackson moved beyond the regional support of the Old Southwest to wider appeal and the greatest number of electoral votes. Because no candidate had a majority, however, the election was thrown into the House of Representatives, which chose Adams.
18The New Popular Democratic Culture More popular form of politics was emerging.Increased political participation and helped elect Jackson presidentMass campaigning increases participation.Refer to photo of Politics in an Oyster House, p. 307.
19The New Popular Democratic Culture: The Print Revolution The print revolution most evident newspaper growth.Politics democratized by political pageantry.Tightly-organized, broad-based political groups emerged.Party loyalty stressed.
20FIGURE 11.2 The Burgeoning of Newspapers Newspapers have a long history in the United States. Even before the American Revolution, the colonies boasted 37 newspapers (see Chapter 6), and within little more than a decade, that number had nearly tripled. Toward the end of the century, however, the number of newspapers expanded rapidly, by 1835 numbering more than 30 times that of 1775.
21The Election of 1828 Jackson triumphed in 1828 Contest portrayed as struggle between democracy and aristocracy.His victory showed the strength of new parties.
22MAP 11.4 The Election of 1828 Andrew Jackson’s victory in 1828 was the first success of the new national party system. The coalition of state parties that elected him was national, not regional. Although his support was strongest in the South and West, his ability to carry Pennsylvania and parts of New York demonstrated his national appeal.
23FIGURE 11.3 Pre–Civil War Voter Turnout The turnout of voters in presidential elections more than doubled from 1824 to 1828, the year Andrew Jackson was first elected.Turnout surged to 80 percent in 1840, the year the Whigs triumphed.The extension of suffrage to all white men, and heated competition between two political parties with nationwide membership, turned presidential election campaigns into events with great popular appeal.
24The Jackson Presidency Part FourThe Jackson Presidency
25A Popular Figure Jackson symbolized the frontier. Unruly well-wishers led to “King Mob” fears
26A Strong Executive Jackson’s Democrats created a national coalition. Jackson was strong executive; consulted “Kitchen Cabinet”.Jackson strengthened presidency by using veto.Most famous veto was defeat for rival Henry Clay.
27The Nation’s Leader versus Sectional Spokesmen Regional spokespeople included:Daniel Webster for the East;John C. Calhoun for the South; andHenry Clay for the West.Jackson had national appeal.Refer to photo of Calhoun and Clay, p. 311
28The Nullification Crisis Constitutional ambiguity.Sectional interests.States’ rights issue caused political controversies.
29The Nullification Crisis The 1828 “Tariff of Abominations”.Calhoun defended nullification.South Carolina nullified the 1833 tariff.Jackson considered South Carolina’s treasonous; Force Bill passed.Henry Clay engineered compromise tariff.
30Changing the Course of Government Part FiveChanging the Course of Government
31Indian RemovalJackson embraced Indian cession of their lands and removal.The five civilized southern tribes most affected.Jackson pressed for Cherokee removal.
32Indian Removal Jackson defied the Supreme Court. The Cherokee removal called “Trail of Tears.”Removal Act of 1830 was strongly opposed by northerners.
33MAP 11.5 Southern Indian Cessions and Removals, 1830s Pressure on the five major southern Indian peoples—the Cherokees, Chickasaws, Choctaws, Creeks, and Seminoles—that began during the War of 1812, culminated with their removal in the 1830s. Some groups from every tribe ceded their southern homelands peacefully and moved to the newly established Indian Territory west of Arkansas and Missouri. Some, like the Seminoles, resisted by force. Others, like the Cherokees, resisted in the courts, but finally lost when President Andrew Jackson refused to enforce a Supreme Court decision in their favor. The Cherokees, the last to move, were forcibly removed by the U.S. Army along the “Trail of Tears” in 1838.
34Internal Improvements 1850: rivers, canals, road, and railroads connected nation.The transportation revolution.States provided more funding for infrastructure.
35Legal Support for Private Enterprise Supreme Court fostered economic growth:asserting federal power over interstate commerce; andencouraging economic competition by denying monopolies.State laws granted charters of incorporation.Refer to SC cases Gibbons v. Ogden (1824) and Dartmouth College v. Woodward (1819)
36The Bank WarSecond Bank of the United States (1816) quasi-private institution.The Second Bank acted as currency stabilizer by:encouraging the growth of strong and stable financial interest; andcurbing less stable and irresponsible ones.Eastern merchants liked bank.Western farmers and speculators feared Bank.Jackson vetoed the re-chartering bill.Refer to photo of Andrew Jackson, p.318.
37In this political cartoon, Jackson destroys the Second Bank of the United States by withdrawing government deposits. As the Bank crashes, it crushes the director Nicholas Biddle (depicted as the Devil), wealthy investors (with moneybags) and the newspaper editors (surrounded by paper) who opposed Jackson on this issue. SOURCE:Library of Congress.
38Jackson's Reelection in 1832 1832 Jackson soundly defeated Clay.Jackson put federal money in “pet” banks.Jackson claimed he could ignore Congressional.Refer to Jackson political cartoon, p. 317
39Whigs, Van Buren, and the Election of 1836 The Bank called in commercial loans, causing a recession.Jackson’s opponents founded an opposition party—the Whigs.The new party lost 1836 election to Martin Van Buren.
40The Panic of 1837 Bank death led to Panic of 1837. Depression gave Whigs opportunity.Refer to photo of The Panic of 1837, p. 319.
41The Second American Party System Part SixThe Second American Party System
42Whigs and Democrats Democrats: Organized to elect Jackson Party spoke for Jeffersonian democracy,Power base lay in rural South, West, northern urban workers
43Whigs and Democrats Whigs: Organized in opposition to Jackson Heirs to Federalism,Power base lay in the North and Old Northwest
44The Campaign of 1840 1840 Whigs portrayed Harrison as humble man. The Whigs won a sweeping electoral victory.
45MAP 11.6 The Election of 1840 The Whigs triumphed in the election of 1840 by beating the Democrats at their own game. Whigs could expect to do well in the commercializing areas of New England and the Old Northwest, but their adopted strategy of popular campaigning worked well in the largely rural South and West as well, contributing to Harrison’s victory.The Whigs’ choice of JohnTyler as vice presidential candidate, another strategy designed to appeal to southern voters, backfired when Harrison died and Tyler, who did not share Whig principles, became America’s first vice president to succeed to the presidency.
46The Whig Victory Turns to Loss: The Tyler Presidency The Whig triumph was short-lived.Tyler vetoed a series of bills.The Whigs were unable to bridge the gap between North and South.
47American Arts and Letters Part SevenAmerican Arts and Letters
48Popular Cultures and the Spread of the Written Word Communications revolution.Newspapers and almanacs fostered popular culture.Refer to photo of The Crockett Almanac, p. 321.
49Creating a National American Culture An intellectual movement.Irving, Cooper, and Emerson created distinctly American culture.Refer to photo of The Boston Athenaeum, p. 322.
50Artists and Builders Artists drew American landscape and lifestyles. Neoclassical remained the architectural style.Balloon frame construction helped housing grow.Refer to photo of Kindred Spirits, p. 323.
51Asher Durand, a member of the Hudson River School of landscape painting, produced this work, Kindred Spirits, in 1849, as a tribute to Thomas Cole, the school’s leader. Cole is one of the figures depicted standing in a romantic wilderness. SOURCE:Courtesy of The New York Public Library.
53A Regular Row in the Backwoods A Regular Row in the Backwoods. The 1841 issue of the Crockett Almanac, named after the Tennessee backwoodsman made famous by his self-serving tall tales, portrayed a rough rural “sport.” Inexpensive comic almanacs combined illustrated jokes on topical subjects with astrological and weather predictions. SOURCE:Crockett Almanac Library of Congress.
54The Boston Athenaeum was one of Boston’s leading cultural institutions The Boston Athenaeum was one of Boston’s leading cultural institutions. The library, shown in this engraving, was probably the finest in the country in the early nineteenth century. SOURCE:Library of the Athenaeum.Wood engraving,1855.Collection of the Boston Athenaeum.
55Nullification CrisisState’s rights versus Federal laws
56Indian Removal ActAct passed by Congress to remove 5 Southeastern tribes.