2Let’s Review… Presidents… George WashingtonJohn AdamsThomas JeffersonJames MadisonJames Monroe
3Election of 1824 Who ran… Who won… John Quincy Adams – Democratic-RepublicanWilliam CrawfordHenry ClayAndrew Jackson – Democratic-RepublicanWho won…Jackson won popular votes BUTJackson had the most electoral votes, but he didn’t have enough…
4Corrupt BargainJackson had the most electoral votes and won the popular vote, but because so many people ran, no one candidate had at least half +1 electoral votes. What happens then?House of Representatives decides electionElection of 1824 Results
5Corrupt Bargain (conclusion) Speaker of the House, Henry Clay, influenced the House members, so they voted for AdamsHenry Clay is then appointed as Secretary of State by President Adams…
6Election of 1824 – 6th President John Quincy Adams becomes the 6th President of the United StatesHe was a Democratic- RepublicanJohn Adam’s sonhe was disliked by most like his father
7Election of 1828 Jackson claimed to represent the “common man” Jackson felt a connection with normal, everyday common peopleJQ Adams felt a connection with the wealthy, privileged peopleJackson & Adams were both Democratic-Republicans BUT they represented different groups of people.
8Split Party Adams’ supporters became known as Republicans Since Adams and Jackson represented different groups of people, the party split.Adams’ supporters became known as RepublicansJackson’s supporters became known as Democrats
9Election of 1828 – Andrew Jackson Jackson promised to look out for the interests of the common people.The idea of spreading political power to all the people and ensuring majority rule became known as Jacksonian democracy.Jackson began giving jobs to his supporters and friends – he backed the majority
10Election of 1828Andrew Jackson won the election of 1828 to become the 7th PresidentJackson’s humble background and reputation as a war hero helped make him President.He was the first President who wasn’t from a rich Mass. or Virginia family.Thousands of people came to Jackson’s inauguration, this showed Jackson’s popularity.
11Spoils SystemJackson began his Presidency by replacing many government jobs & officials with his supporters and friends. (ordinary citizens)The spoils system became known as the practice of giving government jobs to political supporters.
13Indians in AmericaSince 1600, white settlers had pushed Native Americans westward as they took more and more of their land.By the 1820s, about 100,000 Native Americans remained east of the Mississippi River.Andrew Jackson had long supported a policy of moving Native Americans west of the Mississippi River
14Indian Removal ActJackson believed the government had the right to regulate where Native Americans could live.Jackson passed the Indian Removal ActThis required Native Americans to move west.
16Indian TerritoryAs whites invaded Indian homelands, many Native Americans began signing treaties exchanging their land for land in the West.Worcester v. Georgia – supreme court decision that forced Indians to move west.Indian Territory – Parts of Oklahoma Native American Indians were forced to move to by Andrew Jackson and the Supreme Court.
18Trail of TearsMany Cherokees refused to move West. Jackson made soldiers force Cherokees into camps and made them set out on a long, hard journey to Indian Territory.¼ of the Indians on the journey died.Trail of Tears – The journey of Cherokee Indians being forced off their homeland to Indian Territory
20Was Jackson right?People with racial hatred in their hearts in power always think Law and Justice is on their side.President Andrew Jackson did not have the law on his side when he marched 4,000 Cherokee to their deaths on the Trail of Tears. "JOHN MARSHALL HAS MADE HIS LAW NOW LET HIM ENFORCE IT", Andrew Jackson to the Supreme Court when ordered to leave the Cherokee alone.
21Jackson and the Indians Andrew Jackson had the greatest impact on the Indians of all Presidents beforeand after him
23TariffsMany lands had been acquired by time Andrew Jackson became President.Tariffs – taxes on imported goods – became an issueRevenue tariff – used to raise money, like sales tax. These taxes are usually low.Protective tariff – to persuade people to buy goods in their own country instead of purchasing foreign-made products. These are high taxes that protect American companies.
24Protective tariff vs. no tariff $2.50 to produce in Britain$1.00 profit$4.90$3.50==Tariff 40%++$3.00 to produce in the U.S.$1.00 profit$4.00$4.00==+Cheaper for products made in the U.S. – encourages people to buy American products
25TariffsNortherners supported high tariffs because the American manufacturers sell their products at a lower price than imported goods.Factories & manufacturers were in the NorthThe South did not support high tariffs because its economy depended on foreign trade.They needed foreign products
26Tariff of Abominations Tariff of Abominations – a law passed that raised the tariffs on raw materials and manufactured goods.Southerners were outragedThey had to sell their cotton at low pricesThe state of South Carolina threatened to secede, or leave the Union (United States), because of the Tariff of Abominations.They were upset – bad for the economy
27Doctrine of Nullification John Calhoun did not want S. Carolina to leave the Union so he passed the Doctrine of Nullification -This said a state had a right to nullify, or reject, a federal law that it considers unconstitutionalCalhoun believed Congress had no right to pass a tariff that helped only 1 section of the country
28Secession Secession – withdrawal from the Union South Carolina threatened to withdraw (or leave) the United States of America if the federal government tried to collect the tariffs.WHY? S. Carolina believed the tariffs were too high.
29Civil War Avoided?Jackson– responded to S.C.’s threat by asking Congress for permission to collect the tariff’s by force (using the Army).Jackson also supported a new bill to lower the tariffs; it was a compromise to end the stalemate with South Carolina.South Carolina tried to get other states to support its position, but none did; the crisis subsided.The Civil War almost started in 1833, instead of 1860
30Second Bank of the U.S.Founded in 1816, the Second Bank of the U.S. was opposed by Jackson (he called the bank, “The Monster”.) He vetoed a bill set to renew the charter of the bank in 1832, and Congress could not get the needed votes to override it.Congress wanted the Bank’s Charter to continue, but Jackson despised it; he used the battle to get reelected in 1832 as Jackson was very popular.
31Interpret this cartoon Which of the following bestdescribes the artist’s attitude aboutJackson?Jackson should be King.Jackson is a strong leader.Jackson has vetoed too many bills.Jackson is behaving more like a king than an elected leader.
32Election of 1836Jackson served 2 terms – was very popularJackson’s vice-president, Martin Van Buren became the 8th President of the U.S.A few months after Van Buren took office a panic (fear) about the economy spread.Panic of a widespread fear about the state of the economy
33DepressionPeople took their paper money to the banks and demand gold or silver.The banks could not pay the peopleThe banks went bankrupt.Depression – severe economic slumpVan Buren’s Presidency marked by depression; was not marked with man advances or achievements.
34President Review George Washington John Adams Thomas Jefferson James MadisonJames MonroeJohn Quincy AdamsAndrew JacksonMartin Van Buren
35Election of 1840Henry Clay and Daniel Webster argued that the government needed to help the economyVan Buren disagreed – would not helpMany Americans blamed Martin Van Buren for the PanicClay, Webster, and Jackson opponents formed the Whig Party for the election of 1840
36Election of 1840The Whig Party was named after a British Party & they did not support A. JacksonThe Whigs opposed all the power the chief executive (the President) hasThe Whigs chose William Henry Harrison for President and John Tyler for Vice PresidentHarrison was a war hero
37Harrison dies in office William Henry Harrison became the 9th President of the United StatesDied of pneumonia one month after being inauguratedJohn Tyler, Harrison’s Vice President, took Harrison’s place after he died – becoming the 10th President of the United States.
38Let’s Review… Presidents… George WashingtonJohn AdamsThomas JeffersonJames MadisonJames MonroeJohn Quincy AdamsAndrew JacksonMartin Van BurenWilliam Henry HarrisonJohn Tyler