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America in a World at War AP US History East High School Mr. Peterson Spring 2009.

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Presentation on theme: "AMERICANS AND A WORLD IN CRISIS, 1933–1945"— Presentation transcript:

AP US History East High School Mr. Peterson Spring 2011

2 The United States in a Menacing World, 1933–1939
Nationalism and the Good Neighbor The Rise of Aggressive States in Europe and Asia The American Mood: No More War The Gathering Storm, 1938–1939 America and the Jewish Refugees

3 MAP 25.1 EUROPEAN AGGRESSION BEFORE WORLD WAR II Less than twenty years after the end of World War I, war again loomed in Europe as Hitler launched Germany on a course of military and territorial expansion. Map 25-1, p. 767

4 MAP 25.2 JAPANESE EXPANSION BEFORE WORLD WAR II Dominated by militarists, Japan pursued an expansionist policy in Asia in the 1930s, extending its sphere of economic and political influence. In July 1937, having already occupied the Chinese province of Manchuria, Japan attacked China proper. Map 25-2, p. 768

5 ISOLATIONISM VERSUS INTERVENTIONISM In front of the White House in 1941, an American soldier grabs a sign from an isolationist picketing against the United States entering the war in Europe. A diverse group, isolationists ran the gamut from pacifi sts who opposed all wars, to progressives who feared the growth of business and centralized power that a war would bring, to ultra-rightists who sympathized with fascism and/or shared Hitler’s anti-Semitism. p. 769

6 LAURA AND ENRICO FERMI Enrico Fermi, pictured here with his Jewish wife, Laura, emigrated to the United States in 1938 to escape the anti-Semitic persecutions in Mussolini’s Italy. Credited with designing the fi rst manmade nuclear reactor, Fermi, along with his fellow émigrés, played an indispensable role in the development of the atomic bomb by the Manhattan Project. p. 771

7 ALBERT EINSTEIN Leaving Germany for the United States in 1932, Nobel Prize physicist Albert Einstein, perhaps the greatest scientist of the 20th century, aided many other Jews trying to flee persecution by the Nazis and helped alert President Roosevelt to the importance of developing an atomic bomb. p. 771

8 Into the Storm, 1939–1941 The European War
From Isolation to Intervention Pearl Harbor and the Coming of War

9 DESTRUCTION ON PEARL HARBOR In the early morning of Sunday, December 7, 1941, Japanese airplanes launched from aircraft carriers attacked the United States fl eet moored at Pearl Harbor, on Oahu Island, Hawaii. The surprise attack by the Japanese, which brought the United States into World War II, destroyed or damaged 19 ships, including fi ve battleships, and some 300 planes, and killed 2,335 American servicemen. It was “a date which live in infamy,” Franklin Roosevelt told Congress and the nation as he asked for a declaration of war. It would unite the country for the war effort, as well as have long-range and far-reaching consequences for American foreign relations and for American attitudes toward the world. p. 773

10 The Pacific Theater Containing the Japanese
Japanese take Philippines, Guam, Wake Island, Hong Kong, Singapore, Dutch East Indies Midway Island (June 1942) Guadalcanal (August 1942) Six months after the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbour on 7th December 1941, a Japanese invasion armada headed for the United States naval base on Midway, two small islands that form a coral atoll in the North Pacific about 1,300 miles northwest of Hawaii.


12 Holding off the Germans
Marshall wants French invasion in ‘43 British offensive against Germans Germans retreat at El Alamein Erwin Rommel Anglo-American force lands at Algiers and Casablanca Defeated at Kasserine Pass Gen. Patton leads counteroffensive With Gen. Bernard Montgomery Germans driven from North Africa (May 1943)

13 MAP 25.3 WORLD WAR II IN EUROPE AND AFRICA The momentous German defeats at Stalingrad and in Tunisia in early 1943 marked the turning point in the war against the Axis. By 1945, Allied conquest of Hitler’s “thousand-year” Reich was imminent. Map 25-3, p. 779



16 Eastern Front Germans attack Soviet Union
Russians hold off Germans at Stalingrad ( ) Both sides suffer enormous losses


18 America and the Holocaust
Resistance to calls for Allied effort to end killing or rescue Jews St. Louis turned away in 1939 Immigration quotas go unused Calls for bombing death camps or rail lines Rejected in favor of winning the war

19 EXECUTION OF AN UKRAINIAN JEW The German Einsatzgruppen, special mobile squads ordered to carry out the “Final Solution” of killing all Jews, murdered some 600,000 Ukrainian Jews in the summer of 1941. p. 791


21 America Mobilizes for War
Organizing for Victory The War Economy A “Wizard War” Propaganda and Politics The Battlefront, 1942–1944 Liberating Europe War in the Pacific The Grand Alliance

22 Prosperity in War War ended the depression
Capital projects in the west Henry Kaiser Unions reap gains No-strike pledge 15,000 work stoppages United Mine Workers strike (May 1943) Smith-Connally Act (War Labor Disputes Act) 30-day waiting period before strike Govt. could seize war plants Price controls Office of Price Administration (OPA) Leon Henderson, then Chester Bowles

23 Mobilizing Production
War Production Board (WPB) Weaker than WWI’s War Industries Board Complaints from small businesses Moved to White House War economy met almost all nation’s war needs New synthetic rubber industry Producing more than needed Twice the output of Axis powers combined

24 MAP 25.5 THE HOME FRONT, War-related production finally ended the Great Depression, but it also required many Americans to move, especially to western states, where the jobs were. This map shows major war-related industries and the states that gained and lost populations. For Japanese-Americans, relocation did not mean new jobs, but a loss of freedom as they were assigned to one of ten relocation centers across the country. Map 25-5, p. 783

25 FIGURE 25.1 U.S. WARTIME PRODUCTION Between 1941 and 1945, the economy grew at a remarkable pace.
Fig. 25-1, p. 776

26 FIGURE 25.1 U.S. WARTIME PRODUCTION Between 1941 and 1945, the economy grew at a remarkable pace.
Fig. 25-1, p. 776

27 FIGURE 25.1 U.S. WARTIME PRODUCTION Between 1941 and 1945, the economy grew at a remarkable pace.
Fig. 25-1, p. 776

28 FIGURE 25.1 U.S. WARTIME PRODUCTION Between 1941 and 1945, the economy grew at a remarkable pace.
Fig. 25-1, p. 776

29 FIGURE 25.1 U.S. WARTIME PRODUCTION Between 1941 and 1945, the economy grew at a remarkable pace.
Fig. 25-1, p. 776

30 FIGURE 25.1 U.S. WARTIME PRODUCTION Between 1941 and 1945, the economy grew at a remarkable pace.
Fig. 25-1, p. 776

31 RITA HAYWORTH AIDS SCRAP DRIVE One of the many Hollywood stars who used their popularity to aid the war effort, actress Rita Hayworth displays her famous legs to urge Americans to donate scrap metals for the manufacture of military equipment. p. 777

32 Science and Technology
Mass production applied to defense industry Quickly surpass Germans and Japanese Radar and sonar Four-engine bombers (B17F) Gee navigation systems Ultra Magic Atom bomb

33 War and American Society
The GIs’ War The Home Front Racism and New Opportunities War and Diversity The Internment of Japanese-Americans

34 African Americans and the War
Fair Employment Practices Commission (FEPC) Established to prevent march led by Sleeping Car Porters Union Investigate discrimination Migration to northern cities Congress of Racial Equality (CORE)-1942 Segregated military units 700,000 serving at end of war Slow change

35 A “DOUBLE V” PROTEST As the mobilization for war lifted the pall of the depression for white workers, management and labor joined together to exclude African-Americans from the benefits of the war boom. To protest, picketers rallied for defense jobs outside the Glenn Martin aircraft plant in Omaha, Nebraska. p. 787


37 Native Americans and the War
25,000 in military “Code-talkers” Many had contact with whites for first time Few opportunities after war Many returned to reservation, but others stayed away


39 Mexican Americans and the War
Increased employment opportunities Bracero program Factories Migration to cities 300,000 served in military Zoot-suit riots


41 Women and the war Increase in employment Industrial work force
“Rosie the Riveter” Union membership rose Most in service-sector Washington D.C. bureaucracy Military WACs, WAVEs Clerical, nursing Separation Quick marriages Beginning of the “baby boom” Limited child care “latchkey children,” “eight-hour orphans” Rise in juvenile crime Many teenagers worked 60%


43 Wartime Life and Culture
Economic good times Movies Hollywood goes to war Newsreels Radios Fighting for the American way of life Pinup girls USOs Dancing Major disruptions for high schools and colleges Universities become officer training camps “Your people are giving their lives in a useless sacrifice. Ours are fighting for a glorious future of mass employment, mass production, and mass distribution of ownership.”—Saturday Evening Post mock letter to leaders of Japan “They are fighting for home, because home is where the good things are—the generosity, the good pay, the comforts, the democracy, the pie—writer John Hershey from Guadalcanal




47 Internment of Japanese Americans
Issei and Nisei Stories of Japanese sabotage and conspiracy in Hawaii Sec. of Navy Frank Knox “the most effective fifth column work of the entire war Belief in conspiracy on west coast Gov. Earl Warren Gen John L. DeWitt Executive Order No. 9066 “intern” Japanese and Japanese Americans Relocation centers Korematsu v. U.S. Constitutionally permissible Compensated in 1988 Only about 127,000 Japanese Americans in U.S. About 1/3 were non-citizens (Issei) and 2/3 native-born or naturalized citizens (Nisei) DeWitt-”no confidence in [Japanese-American] loyalty


49 YOUNG NIESI EVACUEES AT THE TURLOCK ASSEMBLY CENTER Awaiting their turn for baggage inspection on May 2, 1942, these children would be interned in remote “relocation centers” along with 37,000 first-generation Japanese immigrants (Issei) and some 75,000 native-born Japanese-American (Niesi) citizens of the United States. Hastily uprooted from their homes, farms, and stores, most lost all their property and personal possessions, and spent the war under armed guard. p. 789

50 Retreat from Reform Dismantling the New Deal 1944 Election
Republican gains in Congress Supporter for war policies CCC and WPA 1944 Election Domestic economic issues President’s health Roosevelt for a fourth term Republicans-Thomas Dewey

51 The Defeat of the Axis

52 Invasion of Italy Casablanca conference-Roosevelt and Churchill
Allied plan to invade Sicily Knock Italy out of war Tie up German diviisons Sicily invaded (July 1943) Anzio landing (Jan. 1944) Mussolini government falls Rome captured (June 4, 1944)


54 German prisoners at Anzio.
Eventually the Italian people's distaste for Mussolini resulted in his death as well as that of some of his guards and his current mistress on April 28, 1945, when they were shot in the back of the truck in which they were being transported to stand trial. The bodies were taken to a large town square and set onto the ground where they were dragged through the streets. Italian people present at the event were allowed to show their displeasure for Mussolini by kicking, stomping, and spitting on the bodies. Following this display of anger, the bodies were hung for public display. The abuse of the corpses continued as the mob hit them with sticks and their fists, and pelted them with food or anything else at their disposal. The bodies were finally removed from the crowd. It wasn't until several years later that Mussolini's wife was finally allowed to give her husband a respectable burial.

55 The Liberation of France
Strategic bombing Leipzig, Dresden, Berlin Weakening the Luftwaffe Acquisition of “Ultra” machine D-Day (June 6, 1944) Gen Dwight D. Eisenhower Normandy invasion Dislodge Germans from coast in a week Paris liberated Battle of the Bulge Germany defeated V-E Day (May 8, 1945)


57 (Saving Private Ryan) “FULL VICTORY—NOTHING ELSE!” Commander-in-Chief of Allied Expeditionary Force General Dwight D. (“Ike”) Eisenhower gives the order of the day to U.S. paratroopers in England on the eve of D-Day. p. 780

58 the German counteroffensive in the Belgian Ardennes and Luxembourg, generally known as the Battle of the Bulge. It lasted from December 16, 1944 to January 28, For the 500,000 U.S. soldiers involved, it was the largest land battle of World War II. The German military attacked with two Armies totaling 29 divisions. The battle led to 81,000 U.S. casualties, with 19,000 dead. By January 3, 1945, the German counteroffensive was halted and the Allies began their own attack that would take them across the Rhine River and into Germany.



61 The Pacific Offensive Japanese force Americans from Burma (1942)
The Burma Road opens (1944) Battle of Leyte Gulf (Oct. 1944) Largest naval engagement in history Iwo Jima (Feb. 1945) Okinawa (June 1945) Firebombing of Tokyo (March 1945) Bitter fighting expected Japanese military leaders want to keep up fight Leyte Gulf-Philippines Iwo Jima-costliest battle ever for US Marines (20,000 casualties) 750 miles form Tokyo Okinawa- 50,000 US casualties Japanese-over 100,000 dead Only 370 miles south of Japan

62 MAP 25.4 WORLD WAR II IN THE PACIFIC American ships and planes stemmed the Japanese offensive at the Battles of the Coral Sea and Midway Island. Thereafter, the Japanese were on the defensive against American amphibious assaults and air strikes. Map 25-4, p. 782





67 Triumph and Tragedy, 1945 The Yalta Conference Victory in Europe
The Holocaust The Atomic Bombs

68 The Manhattan Project Discovery of uranium’s radioactivity
Enrico Fermi (1930s) News of German experiments (1939) Controlled fission chain reaction (1942) Fermi Army takes over project J. Robert Oppenheimer Los Alamos, NM The Trinity Bomb (July 16, 1945) Trinity site, near Alamogordo, NM

69 Many years later, Albert Einstein and Leó Szilárd re-enact the signing of the Einstein-Szilárd letter to Roosevelt, which launched official U.S. atomic bomb research. General Leslie Groves (left) was appointed the military head of the Manhattan Project, while Robert Oppenheimer (right) was the scientific director.


71 Atomic Warfare Harry S. Truman issues ultimatum to Japan from Potsdam demanding surrender by August 3 Military leaders cannot be persuaded Hiroshima bombing (August 6, 1945) The Enola Gay 80,000 dead Nagasaki (August 9th) 100,000 deaths Japan surrenders (September 2, 1945)



ATOMIC BOMBS BRING RELIEF AND JOY TO SOME These U.S. servicemen, like many others, hearing the news of the atomic bombs and the Japanese surrender, expressed their relief and joy that they would soon be safely coming home rather than having to participate in an invasion of Japan. p. 793


76 US Sacrifices and Outcomes
Light, but costly 322,00 dead 800,000 injured Uncertain future Antagonism bet. US and Soviet Union

77 p. 795

AP US History East High School Mr. Peterson Spring 2011

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