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Chapter 13: Medieval Africa

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1 Chapter 13: Medieval Africa
Section 1: The Rise of African Civilizations

2 I Can… Describe the importance of the West African empires of Ghana, Mali, and Songhai including: a.) Trade routes b.) Products c.) Spread of Arabic language

3 Africa’s Geography Holds the world’s largest desert=> Sahara
World’s second largest continent Rain forests cover 10% of the land Areas of mild climate are found along the Mediterranean Sea Almost all of Africa lies on a plateau Nile River is Africa’s longest river

4 West African Empire Berbers were the 1st known people to settle in N. Africa Started the trade w/ Western Africa Trade would lead to small cities which lead to great empires

5 Ghana 400s AD-1200 AD “Crossroads of Trade”
Had a huge army; had iron weapons Traders had to pay a tax to get through Ghana New gold mines cut into taxes collected Couldn’t feed people; constant fighting

6 Mali 1230-1332 Warrior-king Sundiata Keita took over Ghana
Controlled land from Atlantic Coast to Timbuktu Controlled gold-mining areas; rebuild the salt and gold trade Last strong ruler Mansa Musa; weak rulers fall to the Berbers

7 Songhai Leader Sunni Ali drove Berbers out of Timbuktu Control lands from the Nile River to deep in to the Sahara Desert; Largest empire in Western Africa Destroyed by Moroccan soldiers

8 Kingdoms of the Rainforest
Benin and Kongo Had farmable soil and warm, wet climate Great farming which led to surplus of food which led to more trade

9 East Africa Mid- 700s AD- Many Arab Muslim traders settled in East Africa city-states Goods and ideas exchanged btwn Arabs and Africans

10 Zimbabwe 700 AD-1400s AD Founded by Shona People Supplied gold, ivory, and copper to E. African coast Ruled by 2 kings: Mutota and Matope made Zimbabwe into a large empire South of Zambezi River to the Indian Ocean

11 Section 2: Africa’s Gov’t and Religion

12 Gov’t and Society Kings settled arguments, managed trade, and protected the empire Complete obedience was expected in return Ghana’s Gov’t: Kings relied on help from close advisers As empire grew, rulers divided it into provinces which were divided into districts Kings held tightly to power and controlled trade Weird=> throne goes to king’s nephew

13 Mali’s Gov’t: Followed Ghana’s model but on a much larger scale Empire split into provinces but generals were leaders instead of lesser kings Songhai’s Gov’t: Built on traditions of Ghana and Mali Gov’t never fully set up due to Sunni Ali’s constant fighting

14 Traditional African Religions
Believe in 1 supreme god Understood the Christian and Muslim idea of one god, but wanted to worship in own way Religion provided rules for living and helped people stay in touch w/ their history

15 Islam in Africa Mansa Musa worked to make Islam stronger in Africa
Most African Muslims chose Islam bc it helped them trade w/ Arab Muslims Musa built many mosques to help spread Islam After his trip to Makkah, he brought back the finest architects, writers, and teachers to help share Islam w/ West Africa

16 Askia Muhammad strengthened Islam in Songhai
Made court honor Muslim laws Made Timbuktu an important center of Islamic culture Set up 150 schools to teach the Quran In East Africa, the Swahili culture is created Mix of African and Muslim traditions Impact of Islam on Africa: 1.) Changes laws 2.) Advances learning 3.) Introduces Arabic language to Africa 4.) Influences the architecture in Africa 5.) Begins to change the culture of Africa

17 Section 3: African Society and Culture
1.) Describe the causes and effects of European exploration after 1400 including: B.) Impact on the peoples of sub-Saharan Africa ect

18 Life in Medieval Africa
3000 BC-400 AD- The Bantu people moved from Nigeria and settled much of Africa Wherever they went, they took their culture w/ them This is the reason why people all across Africa share some common ideas and traditions

19 Importance of Family Family is basis of African society
Live in extended families Many villages were matrilineal Trace descent through mothers Value children greatly

20 Education and Community
Education carried out by family and other villagers Learn history of their people and skills needed to survive c

21 Role of Women Acted mostly as wives and mothers
Men had more rights and controlled much of what women did Served as soldiers in some African kingdoms Some became famous rulers: 1.) Dahia al-Kahina=> fought Muslim invaders of her kingdom 2.) Nzinga=> Spent 40 yrs. Battling Portuguese slave traders

22 Slavery W/in Africa Europeans did not invent slavery; existed throughout the world for a long time Africans enslaved criminals, captives, or prisoners of war Became part of Saharan trade Could become free through hard work or marrying a free person Human trade increased as trade grew w/ Muslim merchants

23 The European Slave Trade
Began in 1441 w/ Portugal Usually stayed in Portugal and worked as laborers Then, they began colonizing and used enslaved Africans to do all the hard work The rest of Europe will follow Portugal’s example Late 1400s- Europeans arrived in America and brought Africans over to work the land

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