5 I. Ghana Controls Trade A. Soninke—banded together for protection B. People of Ghana grew in strength---learned to use iron tools for farming.C. Silent Barter Trade---traded 2 main resources (gold and salt) using this peaceful trading system.D. Ghana controlled trade and became very wealthy—built up an army.
6 II. Ghana Builds an Empire All trade through north and south Africa passed through Ghana.A. Taxes and Gold1. Every trader entering Ghana had to pay a tax2. Gold was traded, but most was kept by the king3. Common people could only own gold dust
7 II. Ghana Builds an Empire B. Expansion of the Empire1. Part of Ghana’s wealth went to support the army2. The empire reached its peak under Tunka Manin—king of Ghana
8 III. Ghana’s Decline A. Invasion The Almoravids attacked and weakened trade in Ghana.B. OvergrazingDestroyed Ghana’s farmlandC. Internal RebellionPeople that Ghana had conquered rose up in rebellion
9 I. Mali Mali began under the ruler, Sundiata A. Sundiata Makes Mali and Empire1. Built up an army and conquered Ghana in 1230.2. Took over gold and salt trade (introduced a new crop—cotton)3. Took power away from local leaders---took the new title of Mansa4. Died in 1255; new rulers of Mali were now called Mansas
10 I. MaliB. Mansa Musa1. Mali reached its height under the ruler, Mansa Musa. Islam spread through West Africa because of his influence.2. Ruled from He added Timbuktu to the Mali empire—left on pilgrimage to Mecca to complete one of the pillars of Islam. He gave out large amounts of gold along the way.4. Supported education, the spread of the Arabic language, and the spread of Islam
11 I. Mali C. The Fall of Mali 1. Raiders from the southeast took over —Timbuktu was seized
12 II. Songhai Songhai---a nearby rival kingdom, grew in power. A. The Building of an Empire1. Songhai gained independence from Mali in the 1400’s.2. Songhai leaders traded with other N. African Muslims3. In 1464, Sunni Ali took over and expanded the empire4. Sunni Ali encouraged Islam and local religions
13 II. Songhai B. Askia the Great 1. Songhai people rebelled against Sunni Baru (Sunni Ali’s son)---he was not a Muslim2. Askia the Great became the new ruler of Songhai after the rebellion3. Askia the Great supported education4. Encouraged the growth of Islam5. Set up 5 provinces in Songhai
14 II. Songhai C. Songhai Falls to Morocco 1. Morocco wanted control of the salt mines2. Used the arquebus—early form of a gun---to take over in 1591.3. Trading in West Africa declined as Atlantic port cities became more important to Africans south of Songhai and European merchants.
16 1. How did Timbuktu’s location help it develop into a major trading city? It was a crossroads of trade routes in the Sahara Desert.
17 2. What brought Muslim traders to the kingdom of Ghana? GOLD!
18 3. What other items besides gold and salt were traded in the markets of Timbuktu? Slaves, cloth, horses, spices, silks, ivory
19 4. What did Muslim traders bring with them to sell in Timbuktu? North African cloth and horses, salt
20 5. What religion was brought to western Africa by Muslim traders? Islam
21 6. Who was the most famous and powerful king of Mali 6. Who was the most famous and powerful king of Mali? Where did he go on a year-long journey?Mansa Musa. He made a pilgrimage to the holy city of Mecca to complete one of the 5 pillars of Islam.
22 7. How did it become widely known that Mali was a wealthy kingdom? On Mansa Musa’s pilgrimage to Mecca, he brought 60,000 people from West Africa with him. They gave out and left behind enough gold that would be worth over 100 million dollars today!
23 8. How did Mansa Musa spread Islam? He had many mosques built in Timbuktu and around Mali.He brought Muslim scholars to Mali to teach in the schools he had built in Timbuktu. He encouraged the spread of the Arabic language as well.
24 Ghana 770-1230 AD Location Major Sources of Wealth Important Leader Sub-Saharan West AfricaIn between the Senegal and Niger RiversGold TradeTrade of sheep, cattle, honey, saltControlled all trade routes through the Sahara DesertTunka Manin (1060’s)“Tunka Manin was a Ghanan”
25 Mali 1230’s-(ish)---1464 Location Major Sources of Wealth Important LeadersIn the area where Ghana is and expanded west to the Atlantic OceanControlled gold and salt trade routesTraded beans, rice, onions, and cottonTimbuktu is the center of tradingSundiata: conquered Ghana; Mali’s first rulerMansa Musa:-Most famous ruler of Mali-Spread Islam-Pilgrimage to Mecca-Encouraged the Arabic language-Supported education
26 Songhai: 1464-1591 Location Major Sources of Wealth Important Leaders -Expanded from Atlantic Ocean to Lake Chad-included the Mali empire-Controlled the gold and salt trade routes-Timbuktu was center of trade and Islamic culture---schools and libraries were builtSunni Ali:-First leader of the Songhai empire-Strengthened empireAskia the Great:-encouraged education and the spread of Islam-Had schools, universities, libraries, and mosques built in Timbuktu-Hired Muslim scholars to teach in Timbuktu