Presentation on theme: "Kingdoms of Africa. Introduction Anthropologists believe humanity first arose in East Africa In ancient times, the rise of Egyptian civilization affected."— Presentation transcript:
Introduction Anthropologists believe humanity first arose in East Africa In ancient times, the rise of Egyptian civilization affected African cultures along the upper Nile Kush – an early iron-producing center, grew rich from selling iron products, ivory, ebony, wood, and slaves. (It had once been a part of Egypt called Nubia) Axum – Located in Ethiopia. Its rise caused the decline of Kush. King Ezana made Christianity the official religion (330 A.D.). Axum dominated trade in slaves and ivory.
Gold-Salt Trade Sahara was never completely cut off from Eurasia Muslim merchants crossed the Sahara because of gold and other riches in West Africa West Africa lacked salt – vital to human survival Merchants picked up large blocks of salt on their journey and exchanged them for gold A thriving trade developed, based on gold-salt trade Ideas were exchanged, such as Islamic beliefs
Ghana Made iron swords, spears, and lances to subdue neighboring peoples and to gain control over West Africas major trade routes Caravans brought salt south to Ghana and returned north with gold Power of kings of Ghana rested on their ability to tax all trade passing through the region, especially the gold-salt trade Rulers and nobles were further enriched by using captives of war as slaves 1076 they were invaded by Muslims from North Africa Muslims brought Islam to West Africa
Mali Conquers Ghanas Capital In 1240, the people of Mali, under their leader, Sundiata Keita, conquered the old capital of Ghana and established a new empire.
Kingdom of Mali – 1240-1400 Timbuktu Kingdom of Mali
Rulers brought both gold and salt mines under their direct control Rulers converted to Islam, although most people did not Mansa Musa – expanded kingdom greatly Made a religious pilgrimage to Mecca Brought Muslim scholars and architects back to Mali with him Muslim scholarship flourished Timbuktu became an important center of several important universities and attracted student from Europe, Asia, and Africa
Ibn Battuta – Arab traveler that wrote about Mansa Musa and his respect for law and the power of its ruler Because of his extensive travels and his records historians know a lot about this time period in Africa and the Middle East He was like the Marco Polo of the Muslims
Timbuktu Famous trading city Became an important center of several important universities Attracted students from Europe, Asia, and Africa Flourished as a center of Muslim scholarship Also famous for the Sankore mosque
Sultan Sunni Ali In 1464, Sultan Sunni Ali, captured Timbuktu, brought the upper Niger under his control, and created the larges of West Africas three trading kingdoms.
Kingdom of Songhai – 1464-1600 Kingdom of Songhai
Grew rich from trade across Sahara Desert (salt and gold) Divided into provinces Created a navy and soldiers on horseback (cavalry) expanded its trading networks as far as Europe and Asia Continued to flourish as a center of Muslim scholarship and many subjects were Muslim
Kingdom of Benin Became famous for their copper and bronze sculptures, which were among the finest of all African artwork Became involved with the slave trade
The Great Zimbabwe One of the best known trading kingdoms of South Africa Great deposits of gold Traded gold, copper, and ivory from Africas interior with Muslim traders along Africas east coast Towers of the Great Zimbabwe
Other Important Info Bantu Migrations Communities of peoples who lived on subsistence farming and spoke a common language (Bantu) Lived throughout West, Central, and southeast Africa East African Trading Centers Muslims from the Arabian Peninsula and Persian Gulf settled at ports along the east coast Merchants grew wealthy from trade here Eventually, gave rise to mixed African-Arabian culture known as Swahili
Zimbabwe, Trading Cities, and Migrations. Mogadishu Mombasa Kilwa Zimbabwe
African Society In many African societies, lineage was traced through the mother (matrilineal). Boys and girls were often separated from the community and underwent special ceremonies at puberty. Marriages were arranged by families and grooms paid a dowry to the brides family. Under Islam, women were limited to running the household while husbands represented the family outside it. Slavery Berber groups in N Africa regularly raided villages south of the Sahara for captives, but slavery was also common further south and along the east coast Included prisoners of war, debtors, and some criminals Slaves worked on farmlands, were soldiers, or were domestic servants