2IntroductionAnthropologists believe humanity first arose in East AfricaIn ancient times, the rise of Egyptian civilization affected African cultures along the upper NileKush – an early iron-producing center, grew rich from selling iron products, ivory, ebony, wood, and slaves. (It had once been a part of Egypt called Nubia)Axum – Located in Ethiopia. Its rise caused the decline of Kush. King Ezana made Christianity the official religion (330 A.D.). Axum dominated trade in slaves and ivory.
3Gold-Salt Trade Sahara was never completely cut off from Eurasia Muslim merchants crossed the Sahara because of gold and other riches in West AfricaWest Africa lacked salt – vital to human survivalMerchants picked up large blocks of salt on their journey and exchanged them for goldA thriving trade developed, based on gold-salt tradeIdeas were exchanged, such as Islamic beliefs
5GhanaMade iron swords, spears, and lances to subdue neighboring peoples and to gain control over West Africa’s major trade routesCaravans brought salt south to Ghana and returned north with goldPower of kings of Ghana rested on their ability to tax all trade passing through the region, especially the gold-salt tradeRulers and nobles were further enriched by using captives of war as slaves1076 they were invaded by Muslims from North AfricaMuslims brought Islam to West Africa
6Mali Conquers Ghana’s Capital In 1240, the people of Mali, under their leader, Sundiata Keita, conquered the old capital of Ghana and established a new empire.
8Rulers brought both gold and salt mines under their direct control Rulers converted to Islam, although most people did notMansa Musa – expanded kingdom greatlyMade a religious pilgrimage to MeccaBrought Muslim scholars and architects back to Mali with himMuslim scholarship flourishedTimbuktu became an important center of several important universities and attracted student from Europe, Asia, and Africa
9Ibn Battuta –Arab traveler that wrote about Mansa Musa and his respect for law and the power of its rulerBecause of his extensive travels and his records historians know a lot about this time period in Africa and the Middle EastHe was like the Marco Polo of the Muslims
10Timbuktu Famous trading city Became an important center of several important universitiesAttracted students from Europe, Asia, and AfricaFlourished as a center of Muslim scholarshipAlso famous for the Sankore mosque
11Sultan Sunni AliIn 1464, Sultan Sunni Ali, captured Timbuktu, brought the upper Niger under his control, and created the larges of West Africa’s three trading kingdoms.
13Grew rich from trade across Sahara Desert (salt and gold) Divided into provincesCreated a navy and soldiers on horseback (cavalry)expanded its trading networks as far as Europe and AsiaContinued to flourish as acenter of Muslim scholarshipand many subjects wereMuslim
14Kingdom of BeninBecame famous for their copper and bronze sculptures, which were among the finest of all African artworkBecame involved with the slave trade
16The Great ZimbabweOne of the best known trading kingdoms of South AfricaGreat deposits of goldTraded gold, copper, and ivory from Africa’s interior with Muslim traders along Africa’s east coastTowers of the Great Zimbabwe
17Other Important Info Bantu Migrations East African Trading Centers Communities of peoples who lived on subsistence farming and spoke a common language (Bantu)Lived throughout West, Central, and southeast AfricaEast African Trading CentersMuslims from the Arabian Peninsula and Persian Gulf settled at ports along the east coastMerchants grew wealthy from trade hereEventually, gave rise to mixed African-Arabian culture known as Swahili
18Zimbabwe, Trading Cities, and Migrations. MogadishuMombasaKilwaZimbabwe
19African SocietyIn many African societies, lineage was traced through the mother (matrilineal).Boys and girls were often separated from the community and underwent special ceremonies at puberty.Marriages were arranged by families and grooms paid a dowry to the bride’s family.Under Islam, women were limited to running the household while husbands represented the family outside it.SlaveryBerber groups in N Africa regularly raided villages south of the Sahara for captives, but slavery was also common further south and along the east coastIncluded prisoners of war, debtors, and some criminalsSlaves worked on farmlands, were soldiers, or were domestic servants