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GEOGRAPHY OF AFRICA DESERT MOUNTAINS RAIN FORESTS Africas geography is very diverse, containing mountain ranges, scorching deserts, rain forests, river.

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Presentation on theme: "GEOGRAPHY OF AFRICA DESERT MOUNTAINS RAIN FORESTS Africas geography is very diverse, containing mountain ranges, scorching deserts, rain forests, river."— Presentation transcript:

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2 GEOGRAPHY OF AFRICA DESERT MOUNTAINS RAIN FORESTS Africas geography is very diverse, containing mountain ranges, scorching deserts, rain forests, river valleys, open plains, and jungles

3 GEOGRAPHY OF AFRICA Peoples of Africa adapted to their location in Africas diverse land

4 GEOGRAPHY OF AFRICA The Sahara is the worlds largest desert and acted as a barrier to separate North Africa from sub-Saharan Africa

5 EARLY SOCIETIES OF AFRICA By 750 CE, North Africans were part of the Islamic Empire, converted to Islam, and also shared Arabic culture Early societies of North Africa were influenced by Mediterranean cultures such as the Phoenicians and Romans

6 SOCIETIES OF AFRICA in the Classic Age African societies south of the Sahara were isolated from the Mediterranean cultural diffusion of the Classical Era As a result, these sub-Saharan societies developed differently from the great innovations of Greek, Hellenistic, and Roman cultures

7 How did people in Sub-Saharan Africa live?

8 sub-Saharan farming villages While the societies of sub-Saharan Africa were diverse, they shared some similarities Most of the societies were family-based clans that lived in farming villages

9 sub-Saharan farming villages Few of these societies had written languages; histories were shared orally by storytellers (griots) One of their technological advancements was making iron tools

10 Sub-Saharan Africa Relgions traditions They practiced Animism: a religion in which spirits exist in nature and play a role in daily life

11 THE BANTU MIGRATION Over the course of 4,000 years, Bantu peoples of central Africa migrated south in search of farmland These Bantu migrations helped spread new farming and ironworking techniques

12 What factors shaped the culture of East Africa?

13 EAST AFRICA The societies of East Africa, unlike those of the sub-Sahara, were shaped by cultural diffusion (exchanging of ideas with other cultures) The East Africans participated in the trade network of the Indian Ocean

14 EAST AFRICA The East African kingdom of Aksum traded with Persia, India, Arabia, and Rome

15 Aksum became a kingdom based on Christianity Aksum churches

16 EAST AFRICA Arab merchants brought their religion with them to East Africa Islam was introduced to the East African trade cities

17 EAST AFRICA The mix of African and Arab cultures led to the development of a new language: Swahili East African towns had mosques (Muslim places of worship) and were ruled by Muslim sultans However, many Africans chose to keep their traditional Animistic beliefs

18 Trade Routes Helped integrate Sub-Saharan Africa with the Mediterranea n Sea and the Indian Ocean.

19 WEST AFRICA: GOLD-SALT TRADE The societies of West Africa were shaped by trade with North Africa West Africa had large deposits of gold, but no salt North Africa had large deposits of salt, but no gold

20 WEST AFRICA: GOLD-SALT TRADE The lack of gold in the North and the lack of salt in the West resulted in the Trans-Saharan trade network

21 WEST AFRICA: GOLD-SALT TRADE The lack of gold in the North and the lack of salt in the West resulted in the Trans-Saharan trade network

22 WEST AFRICA AND ISLAM The gold-salt trade spread to the Northeast and attracted Muslim merchants Cultural diffusion between West Africans and the Muslims resulted

23 WEST AFRICA AND ISLAM Islam was introduced to West Africa and slowly gained converts (people who switch their beliefs to a new religion) Many West Africans either blended Islam with Animism or never converted

24 WEST AFRICA: GHANA c. 800-1100 The gold-salt trade led to increased wealth in West Africa and the formation of empires A West African kingdom, Ghana, amassed vast wealth by taxing merchants Ghana became an empire when it used that wealth to build a massive army and conquer neighboring people

25 WEST AFRICA: GHANA By the year 800 CE, Ghana was the most powerful empire in Africa Ghanas kings were not merely rulers; they served as judges, religious leaders, and generals

26 WEST AFRICA: MALI 1230-c. 1400 A kingdom neighboring Ghana, Mali, eventually overthrew Ghana and absorbed its territory into the new Mali Empire Malis King Sundiata took over the Ghana Empire and controlled the major trade cities of West Africa

27 WEST AFRICA: MALI King Sundiata created an efficient government that controlled trade and promoted farming

28 WEST AFRICA: MALI The kings of Mali who ruled after Sundiata converted to Islam The most important of these Muslim kings of Mali was Mansa Musa

29 WEST AFRICA: MALI c. 1300 Mansa Musa built an army of 100,000 soldiers to control Malis gold trade and secure his empire To easier manage his territory, he divided the Mali Empire into provinces, each controlled by a governor he appointed

30 MANSA MUSAS INFLUENCE Mansa Musa was a devout Muslim and went on a hajj to Mecca in 1324 Mansa Musa passed out gold nuggets to the people he met along the way of his long trip

31 This is a European map of Africa. Very little was known about Africa below the Sahara, but Mansa Musa is on the map. Based on his image on the map, what did Europeans know about Mansa Musa?

32 When Mansa Musa returned from Mecca, he was filled with religious fervor

33 Djinguereber, c.1327 He built many mosques throughout the Mali Empire, including one at Timbuktu.

34 University in Timbuktu Timbuktu became a trade city that attracted scholars, religious leaders, and doctors The city had a university and became an important center of learning in the world

35 WEST AFRICA: SONGHAI 1340-1591 After Mansa Musa reign was over, the Mali Empire began to decline Another neighboring kingdom, the Songhai, eventually took over Mali and formed the Songhai Empire

36 WEST AFRICA: SONGHAI Songhai kings gained control of the major trade cities along the highly valuable gold- salt trade routes The fall of the Songhai Empire in 1591 CE ended a thousand year era of West African Empires The Songhai grew into the largest of the West African empires

37 CONCLUSIONS African societies were transformed by two powerful forces: Trade with outsiders Introduction of Islam


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