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The Human Side of Enterprise Sr. Patricia Tavis ELMP 7773 Daniel Gutmore, Ph. D.

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Presentation on theme: "The Human Side of Enterprise Sr. Patricia Tavis ELMP 7773 Daniel Gutmore, Ph. D."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Human Side of Enterprise Sr. Patricia Tavis ELMP 7773 Daniel Gutmore, Ph. D.

2 Douglas McGregor ( ) Noted American social psychologist Wayne State University (B.A., L.L.D.) Harvard (M.A., Ph.D.) : MIT – First full time teacher of psychology : Antioch College – President : MIT - School of Industrial Management

3 What are your assumptions (implicit as well as explicit) about the most effective way to manage people? Douglas McGregor The Human Side of Enterprise

4 Theory X: Assumptions on Human Nature The average human being has an inherent dislike of work and will avoid it if he can. Must be controlled Must be directed Hard management Soft management

5 Theory Y: Assumptions on Human Nature The average human being needs to work, actively seeks responsibility and is creative and resourceful. Self-directed / motivated Seeks responsibility Problem-solvers Intellectual capabilities underused

6 Management Tenets Theory XTheory Y Organizes productive elements according to human needs Organizes the elements according to economic ends Directs people to fit needs of organization Assists people to recognize and develop responsibility People are passive and resistant to organizational needs People become passive as a result of experiences Management gets things done through other people People achieve own goals by directing their own efforts toward organizational objectives

7 Maslows Hierarchy of Needs Self Actualization Esteem Belonginess Safety Shelter Food Basis of McGregors Theory Y

8 Application of Hierarchy of Needs to Management and Workplace Theory X (ineffective management) Once a need is met, it no longer motivates behavior: therefore only unmet needs are motivational. Theory Y (effective management) Motivational emphasis shifts to social, ego, and self- actualization since most employees have physical and safety needs met.

9 Management Styles of Theory X Hard ManagementSoft Management Methods Close supervision tight controls coercion Permissiveness needs for satisfaction Results Restriction of output Mutual distrust Sabotage Unionism Failure to perform roles Employees took advantage by demanding more but performing at lower level * Led to ineffective management

10 Management Styles of Theory Y Decentralization of decision- making authority Delegation Job enlargement Participative management * Led to effective management

11 Management Theory XTheory Y PurposeProduce economic Produce economic resultsresults ApplicationProduction WorkersManagers & Professionals Conducive toLarge scale operationsParticipation & Problem Solving StyleAuthoritarianParticipative Adopted byTaylorist – followersMayos human relations followers

12 Management Functions Theory X Traditional view of direction and control Theory Y Integration of individual & organizational goals ManagementStaff Management

13 Scanlons Organizational Development (Theory Y) Participatory management based on four concepts: 1. Identity 2. Participation 3. Equity 4. Managerial Competence

14 The Scanlon Plan * Management by integration and self control * Equity Motivation Cost reduction and sharingEffective participation Created organizational control

15 Theory X and Theory Y in Educational Settings Theory X 1930s – 1950s Coercion Everyone learns the same / rote methods Theory Y 1960s to Present Honors divergent thinking Uses various teaching methodologies

16 Teacher – Student Relationships Teachers managerial role: Create (in part) work environment Assign jobs Promote students Interact with students

17 Administrator – Teacher Relationships Delegation of responsibilities Job enlargement Participative style Performance appraisals

18 Thank you Sr. Patricia Tavis 2006

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