Presentation on theme: "The Human Side of Enterprise"— Presentation transcript:
1 The Human Side of Enterprise Sr. Patricia TavisELMP 7773Daniel Gutmore, Ph. D.
2 Douglas McGregor (1906-1964) Noted American social psychologist Wayne State University (B.A., L.L.D.)Harvard (M.A. , Ph.D.): MIT – First full time teacher of psychology: Antioch College – President: MIT - School of Industrial Management
3 “What are your assumptions (implicit as well as explicit) about the most effective way to manage people?”Douglas McGregorThe Human Side of Enterprise
4 Theory X: Assumptions on Human Nature The average human being has an inherentdislike of work and will avoid it if he can.Must be controlledMust be directed“Hard management”“Soft management”
5 Theory Y: Assumptions on Human Nature The average human being needs to work, actively seeks responsibility and is creative and resourceful.Self-directed / motivatedSeeks responsibilityProblem-solversIntellectual capabilities underused
6 Management Tenets Theory X Theory Y Organizes productive elements according to human needsOrganizes the elements according to economic endsDirects people to fit needs of organizationAssists people to recognize and develop responsibilityPeople are passive and resistant to organizational needsPeople become passive as a result of experiencesManagement gets things done through other peoplePeople achieve own goals by directing their own efforts toward organizational objectives
7 Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Basis of McGregor’s“Theory Y”Self ActualizationEsteemBelonginessSafetyShelterFood
8 Application of Hierarchy of Needs to Management and Workplace Theory X(ineffective management)Once a need is met, it no longer motivates behavior: therefore only unmet needs are motivational.Theory Y(effective management)Motivational emphasis shifts to social, ego, and self- actualization since most employees have physical and safety needs met.
9 Management Styles of Theory X * Led to ineffective management Hard ManagementSoft ManagementMethodsClose supervisiontight controlscoercionPermissivenessneeds for satisfactionResultsRestriction of outputMutual distrustSabotageUnionismFailure to perform rolesEmployees took advantage by demanding more but performing at lower level* Led to ineffective management
10 Management Styles of Theory Y * Led to effective management Decentralization of decision-making authorityDelegationJob enlargementParticipative management* Led to effective management
11 Management Theory X Theory Y Purpose Produce economic Produce economic results resultsApplication Production Workers Managers & ProfessionalsConducive to Large scale operations Participation & ProblemSolvingStyle Authoritarian ParticipativeAdopted by Taylorist – followers Mayo’s human relations followers
12 Traditional view of direction and control Management FunctionsTheory XTraditional view of direction and controlTheory YIntegration of individual & organizational goalsManagementStaffStaffManagement
13 Scanlon’s Organizational Development (Theory Y) Participatory management based on four concepts:1. Identity2. Participation3. Equity4. Managerial Competence
14 * Management by integration and self control * The Scanlon Plan* Management by integration and self control *EquityMotivationCost reduction and sharingEffective participationCreatedorganizationalcontrol
15 Theory X and Theory Y in Educational Settings 1930’s – 1950’sCoercionEveryone learns the same / rote methodsTheory Y1960’s to PresentHonors divergent thinkingUses various teaching methodologies
16 Teacher – Student Relationships Teacher’s managerial role:Create (in part) work environmentAssign jobsPromote studentsInteract with students
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