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Motivation and Organizational Behavior Theories Chapter 10.

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1 Motivation and Organizational Behavior Theories Chapter 10

2 Frederick Taylor Wanted to study how to improve productivity Started a movement called “scientific management” Created “time-motion” studies to measure just how fast humans could work, if their motions were precise UPS still uses this principle!

3 Elton Mayo Conducted a study at a Western Electric plant to see how workers’ productivity changed under different lighting situations – Came up with completely unexpected results! – Primary results Hawthorne effect – People behave differently when they think they are being studied – Secondary results People perform better when they feel that their input is valued and when they feel a part of a social group

4 Review Questions 1. What is scientific management? 2. What were Mayo’s findings in the Western Electric studies? 3. How did the findings of Mayo influence scientific management?

5 Abraham Maslow Hierarchy of Needs Lower level needs must be met before a person cares much about higher level needs Self- Actualization Safety Physiological Social Esteem

6 Frederick Herzberg What creates the most enthusiasm among workers and makes them work to their full potential? – #1: Sense of achievement – #2: Earned recognition – #3: Interest in work – #4: Opportunities for growth – #5: Opportunities for advancement – #8: Pay – #11: Status

7 Frederick Herzberg Some things motivate workers to be productive and make them satisfied – These are Motivators. – Work, achievement, recognition, responsibility, growth Other things only dissatisfy if they are not sufficiently present. – These are Hygiene Factors. – Pay, status, policy, administration, co-worker relations, working conditions

8 What can be done with Herzberg’s factors Job enrichment Person is given more parts of one large job to do, so that they see the fruits of their labor Visible effect on outcome Variety of skills Autonomy Feedback Job enlargement and rotation Make the daily grind more interesting

9 Review Questions 1. Which of the following, according to Herzberg’s findings, would motivate college graduate workers to perform their best for the longest period of time? Pay or task significance? Autonomy, or a nice job title? 2. Let’s re-draw Maslow’s hierarchy – you tell me what goes where.

10 Douglas McGregor Theory X Managers People dislike work. I have to coerce them into working hard for me. I think that the best way to get a worker to do what I want is through pay and fear. Theory Y Managers People like to work and see the output! People are responsible, creative, and clever. I need to vary my rewards according to what type of person I’m working with.

11 William Ouchi Theory A and J (American and Japanese) American managers tended (in the 80s) to emphasize short- term employment, individual gain, specialization, and rapid promotion Japanese managers tended to focus on lifetime employment, group gain, and the holistic improvement of the employee Created Theory Z Longer-term stay at one job, collective decision making with individual responsibility, and slow evaluation and promotion process

12 Review Questions 1. We’ve gone through a lot of alphabet here. Theory X and Theory Y relate to: A. Types of genes B. Types of managers C. Types of employees 2. We’re hiring folks to manage teams of high schoolers who are working our farm for the summer. Do we need a Theory X or Theory Y person, most likely, to manage well? Why?

13 Review Questions 3. What aspects of traditional Japanese management style are good to use internationally to compete? 4. What aspects of traditional American management style of good to use internationally to compete?

14 Setting Goals Individuals and teams work better when they have something to strive for Drucker and Management by Objectives (MBO) Managers cannot motivate people; they can just set the stage for motivation. Top managers set large goals, broken down into individual objectives for clarity.

15 Employee Relations Theories Expectancy theory: Employees gauge whether they can accomplish something and whether the reward is worth the effort. Reinforcement theory: Individuals respond to positive and negative reinforcement. Equity theory: Employees gauge how much effort others are putting into the same position, and how much they are being rewarded.

16 Some Important Take-Home Points 1. Employees must be treated individually 1. One size does not fit all! 2. Future service interactions will require that employees be able to work autonomously with customers. 3. Managing Gen Xers and Echo Boomers may require more focus on output than effort (that’s a change from the past)

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