2 Approaches to Job Design Work SimplificationAdvocated by Frederick TaylorBreak jobs down into simple components (small tasks)Hire/Train people in necessary KSAs for componentsLower skill levels neededCheaper for the organizationCan decrease potential for errorsHave “expert” employees (specialists)Product produced by combining effortsEmployees are replaceable “cogs” in the machine
3 Consequences of Work Simplification EmotionalResponseBehavioralResponseProcessPerceptionFeelingWorkSimplificationMonotonyBoredomJobDissatisfactionTardinessAbsenteeismTurnoverStress
5 Job Change Strategies Job enlargement Job enrichment Increasing the number and variety of tasksJob enrichmentIncreasing the amount of control over planning and performance of a jobIncreasing involvement in setting organizational policy
6 MASLOW’S HIERARCHY OF NEEDS ACTUALIZATIONESTEEMSOCIALPhysiologicair, water, foodSafetyshelter, freedom from threat and danger (ex. Hurricane)Socialbeing with othersSelf-esteemself-confidence, recognition, respect from one’s peersSelf-actualizationrealizing ones full potentialSAFETYPHYSICAL
7 Herzberg’s Two Factor Theory Hygiene Factorssalarycompany policyphysical facilitiesadministrationworking conditionsco-worker relationsMotivatorschallengeautonomyadvancementrecognition
8 Job Characteristics Model CriticalPsychologicalStatesCore JobDimensionsPersonal andWork OutcomesSkill varietyTask identityTask significanceHigh internal workMotivationHigh quality workPerformanceHigh satisfactionWith workLow absenteeismAnd turnoverExperienced meaningfulnessof workExperienced responsibilityfor work outcomesAutonomyKnowledge of actualresults of activitiesFeedbackGrowth NeedStrength
10 Summary There is no “one best way” to design jobs Simple Jobs advantagesCan reduce potential for errorBe cheaper to staffIncrease efficiencydisadvantagesResult in decreased motivationResult in decreased satisfactionResult in decreased attendance/tenureEnriched JobsCan enhance motivation and satisfactionMay increase costs to organizationmore trainingmore compensation
11 Organizational Structure Why use organizations?Facilitate complex goal accomplishmentReduce individual riskOrganizational StructureForm or Shape of OrganizationHelps coordinate system activitye.g., decision making, communication, etc.Organizational structure often based on people’s implicit theories
12 McGregor’s Management Theories Theory X assumes people…truly dislike workmust be coerced into workingprefer close supervisionavoid responsibilityhave little ambitionvalue security the mostTheory Y assumes people…want to workwill exercise self-controlare motivated to achieve goalsare imaginative and creativeare boxed in by conventional jobs
13 Classical School of Management Assumptions1. Work is inherently distasteful to most people.2. What workers do is less important than what they earn for doing it.Policies1. Manager’s task is to supervise and control.2. Break tasks down into simple, repetitive components. (e.g. Taylor)3. Establish detailed work routines and procedures.
14 Classical Organizational Theory Organizational ComponentsA system of differentiated activitiesPeopleAuthorityCooperationStructural PrinciplesFunctional PrincipleScalar PrincipleLine/Staff PrincipleSpan of Control Principle
15 Applied Example Moon Tent Exercise Communication was “top-down” Decision making was “top-down”
16 Neoclassical Organizational Theory Critiqued principles of Classical theoryFunctional PrincipleScalar PrincipleLine/Staff PrincipleSpan of Control
17 Human Relations School of Management Assumptions1. People want to feel useful and important.2. People desire to belong and be recognized as individuals.Policies1. Manager’s task is to make workers feel useful and important.2. Keep workers informed and listen to their objections to manager’s plans.3. Allow workers to exercise some self-direction and control in routine matters.
18 Human Resources School of Management Assumptions1. Work is not inherently distasteful. People want to contribute to meaningful goals that they have helped establish.2. Most people can exercise far more creative, responsible, self-direction than their job currently allows.Policies1. Manager’s task is to coach and utilize untapped human resources.2. Create an environment that allows workers to contribute to the limits of their abilities.3. Encourage full participation on important matters, continually broadening worker self-direction and control.
19 Systems Theory Inputs Transformation Outputs InformationEquipmentFacilitiesMaterialsMoneyTechnologyTransformationOrganizationHuman ResourcesOutputsProductsGoodsServicesCustomer FeedbackInputsInformationEquipmentFacilitiesMaterialsMoneyTechnologyTransformationOrganizationHuman ResourcesOutputsProductsGoodsServicesCharacteristics of Systems’ TheoriesSubsystemsSynergyInput/Output ModelGoal seekingEntropyDynamic EquilibriumFeedbackCustomer Feedback