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Job and Organizational Design

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Presentation on theme: "Job and Organizational Design"— Presentation transcript:

1 Job and Organizational Design

2 Approaches to Job Design
Work Simplification Advocated by Frederick Taylor Break jobs down into simple components (small tasks) Hire/Train people in necessary KSAs for components Lower skill levels needed Cheaper for the organization Can decrease potential for errors Have “expert” employees (specialists) Product produced by combining efforts Employees are replaceable “cogs” in the machine

3 Consequences of Work Simplification
Emotional Response Behavioral Response Process Perception Feeling Work Simplification Monotony Boredom Job Dissatisfaction Tardiness Absenteeism Turnover Stress

4 Results of Moon Tent Exercise

5 Job Change Strategies Job enlargement Job enrichment
Increasing the number and variety of tasks Job enrichment Increasing the amount of control over planning and performance of a job Increasing involvement in setting organizational policy

ACTUALIZATION ESTEEM SOCIAL Physiologic air, water, food Safety shelter, freedom from threat and danger (ex. Hurricane) Social being with others Self-esteem self-confidence, recognition, respect from one’s peers Self-actualization realizing ones full potential SAFETY PHYSICAL

7 Herzberg’s Two Factor Theory
Hygiene Factors salary company policy physical facilities administration working conditions co-worker relations Motivators challenge autonomy advancement recognition

8 Job Characteristics Model
Critical Psychological States Core Job Dimensions Personal and Work Outcomes Skill variety Task identity Task significance High internal work Motivation High quality work Performance High satisfaction With work Low absenteeism And turnover Experienced meaningfulness of work Experienced responsibility for work outcomes Autonomy Knowledge of actual results of activities Feedback Growth Need Strength

9 Results of Exercises

10 Summary There is no “one best way” to design jobs Simple Jobs
advantages Can reduce potential for error Be cheaper to staff Increase efficiency disadvantages Result in decreased motivation Result in decreased satisfaction Result in decreased attendance/tenure Enriched Jobs Can enhance motivation and satisfaction May increase costs to organization more training more compensation

11 Organizational Structure
Why use organizations? Facilitate complex goal accomplishment Reduce individual risk Organizational Structure Form or Shape of Organization Helps coordinate system activity e.g., decision making, communication, etc. Organizational structure often based on people’s implicit theories

12 McGregor’s Management Theories
Theory X assumes people… truly dislike work must be coerced into working prefer close supervision avoid responsibility have little ambition value security the most Theory Y assumes people… want to work will exercise self-control are motivated to achieve goals are imaginative and creative are boxed in by conventional jobs

13 Classical School of Management
Assumptions 1. Work is inherently distasteful to most people. 2. What workers do is less important than what they earn for doing it. Policies 1. Manager’s task is to supervise and control. 2. Break tasks down into simple, repetitive components. (e.g. Taylor) 3. Establish detailed work routines and procedures.

14 Classical Organizational Theory
Organizational Components A system of differentiated activities People Authority Cooperation Structural Principles Functional Principle Scalar Principle Line/Staff Principle Span of Control Principle

15 Applied Example Moon Tent Exercise Communication was “top-down”
Decision making was “top-down”

16 Neoclassical Organizational Theory
Critiqued principles of Classical theory Functional Principle Scalar Principle Line/Staff Principle Span of Control

17 Human Relations School of Management
Assumptions 1. People want to feel useful and important. 2. People desire to belong and be recognized as individuals. Policies 1. Manager’s task is to make workers feel useful and important. 2. Keep workers informed and listen to their objections to manager’s plans. 3. Allow workers to exercise some self-direction and control in routine matters.

18 Human Resources School of Management
Assumptions 1. Work is not inherently distasteful. People want to contribute to meaningful goals that they have helped establish. 2. Most people can exercise far more creative, responsible, self-direction than their job currently allows. Policies 1. Manager’s task is to coach and utilize untapped human resources. 2. Create an environment that allows workers to contribute to the limits of their abilities. 3. Encourage full participation on important matters, continually broadening worker self-direction and control.

19 Systems Theory Inputs Transformation Outputs
Information Equipment Facilities Materials Money Technology Transformation Organization Human Resources Outputs Products Goods Services Customer Feedback Inputs Information Equipment Facilities Materials Money Technology Transformation Organization Human Resources Outputs Products Goods Services Characteristics of Systems’ Theories Subsystems Synergy Input/Output Model Goal seeking Entropy Dynamic Equilibrium Feedback Customer Feedback


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