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American History GHSGT Review

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Presentation on theme: "American History GHSGT Review"— Presentation transcript:

1 American History GHSGT Review
Colonization through the Civil War

2 English colonies in North America
After England defeated Spain, England could then begin setting up colonies in North America Early settlements were created by joint stock companies: investors would join their money and get a charter from the king to set up a colony in North America The colonists were supposed to find gold/wealth to send back to the investors

3 Jamestown (1607) On May 24, 1607, about a 100 English settlers establish Jamestown colony in Chesapeake Area (Virginia) 1st permanent English colony in North America Jamestown was funded by the joint stock company was called the Virginia Company Colonist more concerned with digging for gold than working for survival Poor location, disease, starvation common

4 Luckily, in 1608, a Captain John Smith took over control and whipped the colonists into discipline.
By 1625, out of an original overall total of 8000 would-be settlers, only 1200 had survived.

5 Brown Gold leads to financial success
John Rolfe cultivated a successful type of tobacco (good quality, easy to grow in Jamestown) Finally, a product that was profitable to the Virginia Company BUT tobacco depleted soil and ruined the land—leading to wars with natives over land. Tobacco also was labor intensive

6 Native Americans were not suitable for slave labor on the tobacco plantations
Englishmen could come to Jamestown and agree to work for 5-7 years to pay off their passage (indentured servitude) By 1619, people realize that indentured servitude isn’t all that was promised—but manual labor is still needed to grow tobacco African slaves were being imported to the colonies in North America (triangular trade)

7 Colonial government & Rebellion
Representative self-government was born in Virginia, when in 1619, settlers created the House of Burgesses. Government for land owners Indentured servants brought to Jamestown to work soon are forced to live on the outskirts of the colony Constant Indian attacks and no voice in government leads to Bacon’s rebellion

8 New England colonies New England colonies were not created for profit by joint stock companies, instead, these colonists came to North America looking for religious freedom English pilgrims establish a colony at Plymouth in 1620 Puritans establish a colony in Boston in Massachusetts Bay Colony

9 Puritans have very rigid society
Religion controls colonial government and almost all aspects of private life as well Only members of the Puritan church could participate in the town meetings Such strict religious beliefs and control of government and society led to conflict within the Puritans

10 Roger Williams and Anne Hutchinson spoke out against the Puritan church and were banished from the Massachusetts Bay Colony Roger Williams founded a new colony Providence (Rhode Island) were people truly had freedom of religion

11 Problems with the Puritans
1684– The King revoked Mass Bay Charter because they would not obey royal authority Mass became a royal colony under the strict, direct control of the King Salem Witch trials—1692 hysteria sweeps through Massachusetts as innocent people are convicted of witchcraft More than 20 people died and 150 imprisoned

12 The Puritans church starts losing its control over society, so it passes a half way covenant (people who were not full members but could attend the Congregational Church)

13 Mid-Atlantic colonies
In 1621 the Dutch formed a colony called New Netherland to take part in the thriving fur trade (present day New York/Hudson River area) The capital of the colony was called New Amsterdam The Dutch encouraged people from different parts of Europe to settle there and they had good relations with the neighboring Indians

14 The English drove out the Dutch without firing a shot
The English did not like this “Dutch Wedge” separating the English colonies of Massachusetts Bay and Virginia The English drove out the Dutch without firing a shot The colony is later named New York and a part of it becomes New Jersey Peter Stuyvesant, governor of New Netherlands

15 Pennsylvania William Penn inherited land in North America due to a debt the king owed to his father Penn set up a Quaker colony Quakers promoted non violence & a society where people were treated as equals Immigrants from all over Europe settled in Pennsylvania (which weakened Quaker philosophies) Penn promoted peaceful co-existence with the natives


17 Africans in America England set up a mercantilism system in which the colonies exported raw materials and products to the “Mother Country” and colonies had to buy products they needed from England Because of the tobacco and sugar plantations, slaves were imported from Africa (triangular/middle passage) Africans retain some of their native culture through song, dance, music and oral traditions

18 French and Indian War A thriving fur trade expanded French control to most of North America England and France get involved in a war over territory from (Seven Year’s War, French & Indian War) France lost the war and had to give up most of its holdings in North America The Treaty of Paris 1763 gave England and Spain most of the land in North America

19 The Proclamation of 1763 said colonists could not settle west of the Appalachian mountains

20 Growing conflicts American colonists feel that they should have the right to move into some of the newly acquired areas Causes tension between colonists and crown Also the English need to raise money to help pay for war expenses, so they start to directly tax the colonies

21 Taxing the colonies Colonists had gotten used to not being directly controlled by Britain So when England starts taxing the colonies and enforcing the taxes, American colonists do not like it Sugar Act (1st direct tax—offenders would be tried in a royal court) Navigation Act restricted colonial trade with other nations

22 Stamp Act—placed a tax on all legal documents
Townshend Act—placed a tax on glass, lead, paint, & tea Colonists boycott British products

23 Boston Massacre British soldiers attack colonists at Boston harbor Crispus Attucks is killed

24 Sons & Daughters of Liberty
Sons of liberty was a secret resistance group led by Samuel Adams who organized boycotts of British goods Women also organized boycotts and protested taxes by making their own clothes and making colonial versions of “tea” The Committees of Correspondence organized communications throughout the colonies to keep the colonists up to date about resistance activities

25 Boston Tea Party December 6, 1773 colonists sneak aboard a ship in Boston harbor and dump 18,000 pounds of tea into the water Britain respond with the Intolerable Acts which shut down the harbor The Quartering Act forced colonists


27 The American Revolution
War breaks out in Spring 1775 When it becomes clear that England will not compromise, people begin to change from “no taxation without representation” to total independence from the crown Thomas Paine wrote Common Sense, a pamphlet criticizing the king and calling upon the colonies to break away from the tyrannical monarchy and form a new government based on social and economic equality

28 Declaration of Independence
By summer 1776 the Continental Congress agreed that separating from England was the best action Thomas Jefferson was asked to write down the colonies concerns and complaints Jefferson drew upon John Locke’s ideas of natural rights that a government could not take away from the people “Life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness”

29 It also stated that the people give the power to the government
“All men are created equal” did not apply to many groups (slaves, women, native Americans, and many poorer colonial men) July 4, 1776 the colonies declare themselves to be free and independent from England John Hancock—the first to sign

30 The French help the colonies
After the colonists win the Battle at Saratoga, the French openly support the colonies in their fight against Britain (want revenge for French & Indian war) The Marquis de Lafayette came to help the colonial cause during the winter at Valley Forge. He also helped negotiate more French help in the war

31 Benjamin Franklin was an ambassador in France and help to secure a French and American alliance treaty

32 George Washington Gained military experience fighting in the French & Indian War Was chosen to lead the Continental Army during the American revolution He organized a daring attack on British forces by crossing the Delaware River on Christmas night 1776 He gained the loyalty and support of his soldiers by living with them at Valley Forge

33 Valley Forge Winter 1777-1778 Soldiers stay at a Fort in Pennsylvania
2,000 of the 10,000 camped there died from exposure to the elements or starvation

34 Turning points in the war
The British, led by Lord Cornwallis, shift their military focus to the south, hoping to rally the support of loyalists there French reinforcements arrive and with the patriot army surround Cornwallis at Yorktown and force the British to surrender The British defeat at Yorktown marks the beginning of the end of the war

35 Treaty of Paris, 1783 American delegates demanded that Britain grant the states their independence It also established the geographic boundaries of the United States Native Americans were not protected, British did not specify when they would evacuate their North American forts, and the states promised to pay back debt owed to the British


37 Articles of Confederation
1st attempt at a government for the USA Gave the national government very little power (did not want a strong central government) could not tax, not executive or courts, hard to amend/ratify, no national army, etc) States had most of the powers

38 Shays’ rebellion Farmers who fought in the American revolution are angry because banks are foreclosing on their farms They marched on the local government demanding the courts be closed (violent rebellion) The federal government didn’t have the power to call on troops to help the state government **Shays’ rebellion showed that the Articles of Confederation government was too weak

39 The US Constitution is formed
September 17, 1787—delegates decide to replace the Articles of Confederation with a stronger, more effective government 2 groups Anti-federalists—wanted a Bill of rights Federalists wanted the Constitution ratified James Madison and Alexander Hamilton wrote the Federalist Papers to gain support for the Constitution

40 Basic ideas of the Constitution
1. Popular Sovereignty 2. Limited Government 3. Federalism 4. Separation of Powers 5. Checks and Balances The Constitution was written by James Madison

41 Controlling the government
A federal government allowed powers to be shared between state and national governments Separation of power would be divided among the executive, judicial, and legislative branches Each branch would have specific responsibilities and the ability to check the power of the other branches

42 The Great Compromise Solved the problem of representation in Congress
The Constitution would create a bicameral legislature The Senate would have 2 representatives from each state The House of Representatives would have members based on each state’s population (larger states would have more reps in the House than smaller states)

43 The Constitution, slavery, & the Bill of Rights
Slavery was specifically not put into the final draft of the Constitution They were afraid southern states would not ratify the new plan for government if the Constitution stated slavery was wrong The Bill of Rights The 1st 10 amendments were added to the Constitution (Bill of rights) Protect people’s basic freedoms and liberties

44 George Washington’s Presidency
1st president Set up a cabinet (officials to help him run the government) The Whiskey rebellion proved that the new nation was strong and could enforce the laws Warned the young nation not to get involved in foreign alliances

45 Hamilton vs. Jefferson Both men served on Washington’s cabinet
Very different ideas about the power of the government outlined in the constitution Hamilton—wanted a strong national govt, a loose interpretation of the constitution, and a Bank of the U.S. His plans favored wealthy Americans Jefferson—wanted stronger state governments, a strict interpretation of the Constitution, and favored farmers and average Americans

46 The different opinions of Hamilton and Jefferson lead to the development of political parties in the government

47 John Adams 2nd president
Tries to avoid the US from getting involved in a war with France Limited the people’s freedom of speech with the Alien and Sedition Acts (anti-French) XYZ affair & conflict with Indians occur during Adam’s presidency

48 Thomas Jefferson 3rd president
Favored a strict interpretation of the Constitution BUT when Napoleon offered to sell French territory in North America, Jefferson couldn’t turn the deal down The Louisiana Purchase doubled the size of the USA for ($15 million) 3 cents an acre

49 Lewis and Clark Explore all of the land gained by the Louisiana Purchase Led by native American guide Sacajawea Documents plants, animals and native Americans in that area Explored all the way to the west coast (California)


51 War of 1812 Britain was at war with France
British ships were kidnapping American sailors and forcing them into the British navy (impressment) Britain also prevented American trade by setting up a blockade Jefferson set up an embargo-wouldn’t buy British goods, but Americans soon want to go to war

52 War of 1812 President Madison declares war
Even though the British burned down the white house and had some victories, American success at the Battle of New Orleans turned the war in our favor The US wins and it promotes the idea of patriotism and nationalism. America had defeated England again

53 The Monroe Doctrine 1823 The U.S. would not allow any European nations to create any new colonies in the Western Hemisphere North, South, and Central Americas

54 The American industrial revolution
Factories start developing near rivers (power) and start replacing hand made goods Eli Whitney developed the idea of interchangeable parts He also developed the cotton gin (separated seeds from cotton fibers) The machine actually increased the demand for slaves to plant and pick cotton in the south

55 America pushes west Once Lewis and Clark explored the rest of North America, Americans feel it was our purpose to extend from coast to coast (Manifest Destiny) Henry Clay’s American System encouraged the building of The National Road and the Erie canal to connect the different areas of America together People start moving west to settle

56 Reform movement 2nd Great Awakening—a religious revival leads to people wanting to reform other problems in society Education reform—Horace Mann (wanted public schools) Temperance—reduce the use of alcohol Abolition—eliminate slavery Mentally ill/prison reform—Dorothea Dix

57 Women’s Suffrage Women wanted the right to vote
Led by Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Lucretia Mott Held a convention at Seneca Falls, NY Wrote the “Declaration of Sentiments” a version of the Declaration of Independence which said all men and women were equal

58 President Jackson Andrew Jackson was a war hero who appealed to the “common man” For the first time, many ordinary citizens voted in the presidential election He also used the spoils system—which put his friends as cabinet members He disobeyed the Supreme Court when he forced the removal of Native Americans living in the east & moved them to Oklahoma (Trail of Tears)

59 Abolition movement grows
William Lloyd Garrison—a leader of the abolition movement, wrote the Liberator Frederick Douglass—former slave, was educated and became a great speaker—wrote the North Star Nat Turner—led a violent slave rebellion Harriett Tubman—led slaves to freedom using the Underground Railroad Harriett Beecher Stowe—Wrote Uncle Tom’s Cabin

60 Free state or slave state?
As territory from the Louisiana Purchase applied for statehood, the debate grew over the number of slave and free states The Missouri Compromise stated that states north of the line would be free and states south of the line would be slave The slavery question is solved temporarily, but would continue to influence political policies


62 States’ rights vs. the Federal government
Slavery and the tariff become hot topics Southern states did not like the tariff of 1928 because it forced them to buy more expensive good produced by northern factories John Calhoun of South Carolina said states should not have to follow federal laws that they disagreed with He believed that states should have the right to nullify (void) laws believed to be unconstitutional President Jackson said states could not nullify a federal law

63 The US becomes divided North—industrial South—based on cotton industry
West—based on farming 3 different attitudes develop about the role of the federal government and the power of the states

64 War with Mexico President Polk also wants New Mexico and California (areas owned by Mexico) The Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo gave the US the areas we wanted It then became a question if these territories would become free or slave states The Wilmot Proviso proposed that no states from the area gained by the war with Mexico would be slave states---problems

65 Conditions of the Compromise of 1850
California would be a free state Utah & New Mexico would decide using popular sovereignty Slaves could no longer be sold in Washington, DC A stronger Fugitive Slave law would require runaway slaves to be returned to their owners

66 Problems with the Compromise
Problem—The Nebraska territory is north of the line An idea is proposed to divide the area in half and let the status be determined be decided by popular sovereignty As the vote gets closer, violence breaks out in Kansas--Bleeding Kansas John Brown leads massacre at Pottawatomie Creek


68 Dred Scott decision Dred Scott was a slave who had lived in a free territory for a while When his owner died, he sued for his freedom The Supreme Court ruled that slaves were property—not citizens-- and the constitution protected property In other words, a slave owner could take his slave any where in the US

69 The Civil War begins South Carolina leads the Confederate states by seceding (breaking away) from the Union Confederacy is led by Jefferson Davis Attack of Ft. Sumter starts the war (April 1861) Union had lots of soldiers and resources Union leaders (Grant and Sherman) Confederacy had better generals (Robert E. Lee, “Stone Wall” Jackson)

70 Important Battles Antietam—Bloodiest single day battle in American history (26,000) Vicksburg—cut the confederacy in half (at the Mississippi River) Gettysburg—the south was not able to continue its plan to invade the Union (turning point of the war) Battle for Atlanta—Sherman led Union troops on a total war fare march from Atlanta to Savannah to demoralize the South.

71 Emancipation Proclamation
Lincoln decides that it was no longer just a war to rejoin the United States, now a war to end slavery The Emancipation Proclamation freed slaves in Confederate States--really no slaves were freed because the Confederate states didn’t listen to Lincoln It also weakened support for the war in the Union because not everyone agreed with ending slavery

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