2World War I ( )World War I ( ) was caused by competition among industrial nations in Europe and a failure of diplomacy. The war transformed European and American life, wrecked the economies of Europe, and planted the seeds for a second world war.
3Questions What were the factors that produced World War I? What were the major events of the war?Who were the major leaders?What were the outcomes and global effects of World War I?What were the terms of the Treaty of Versailles?
4Alliances The alliance system in Europe started with Prussia Prussia wanted to unite the German states into a German nationGermany united (allied) with Austria-Hungary and ItalyFrance and Germany were enemies and so France allied with Russia
6AlliancesGreat Britain remained neutral until Germany started to build up its navyGreat Britain loosely allied with France and Russia forming the Triple EntenteNationalism – intense pride for one’s homeland was a powerful idea in EuropeSelf-determination – the idea that people who belong to a nation should have their own country and government, was a basic idea of nationalism
7“Balkan Powder Keg” Assassination of Archduke Ferdinand In the Balkans, many ethnic groups fought to gain political unity and self-ruleThis led to conflicts between Austria-Hungry and neighboring groups in the Balkan regionsRussia supports “Serbs/Slavs”This will end up being the “straw that breaks the camel back”Assassination of Archduke Ferdinand
9AlliancesA small country called Serbia, allied with Russia, wanted a unified Balkan nationA Serb national assassinated Archduke Franz FerdinandThis assassination forced Austria-Hungary to declare war with Germany siding with themRussia, allied with Serbia, declared war with France siding with them (France wanted Germany defeated)
11Militarism / Alliances / Imperialism / Nationalism MAIN causes of WW IMilitarism / Alliances / Imperialism / NationalismSpark: Archduke Ferdinand (Austria) assassinated
12What is Militarism? A rise in military expenditure, Increase in the size of land military and naval forcesMore influence of the military men upon the policies of the civilian government,But note that militarism is also a government's attitude of mind, seeing war as a valid means of foreign policy. (GERMANY was especially militaristic.)Think of Otto Von Bismarck and Realpolitik
13Causes of World War I Militarism Alliances that divided Europe into competing campsImperialism: The domination of the political, economic or cultural life of another countryNationalistic feelingsDiplomatic failuresCompetition over colonies
14Germany and Austria-Hungary World War IThe war began in Europe in 1914:Central PowersGermany and Austria-HungaryAlliesBritain, France, and Russia.
15Major EventsAssassination of Austria’s Archduke Ferdinand, he was shot by a Serbian nationalist.United States enters the warRussia leaves the war – 1917 (Communist Revolution led by Lenin)
16Major leaders Woodrow Wilson – President of United States Kaiser Wilhelm II – German leaderTsar Nicholas II – Russian leader
27IntroductionWorld War I was over. The killing had stopped. The terms of peace, however, still had to be worked out. On January 18, 1919, a conference to establish those terms began at the Palace of Versailles, outside Paris. Attending the talks, known as the Paris Peace Conference, were delegates representing 32 countries. For one year, this conference would be the scene of vigorous, often bitter debate. The Allied powers struggled to solve their conflicting aims in various peace treaties.
28Key Leaders Come Together This group of leaders was known as the Big Four dominated the peace talks in Paris at Versailles.
33Outcomes and global effect Colonies’ participation in the war, which increased demands for independenceEnd of the Russian Imperial, Ottoman, German, and Austro-Hungarian empiresEnormous cost of the war in lives, property, and social disruption
34Wilson’s Plan for Peace Wilson proposes Fourteen Points—an outline for lasting world peace.Calls for free trade and an end to alliances and military buildupsPromotes self-determination—right of people to govern their own nationEnvisions international peace-keeping body to settle world disputes
35Treaty of VersaillesForced Germany to accept responsibility for war and loss of territory and to pay reparationsLimited the German militaryLeague of Nations
36The Versailles TreatyBritain and France oppose Wilson’s ideas and want to punish Germany.Allies and Germany sign an accord—the Treaty of Versailles—in June 1919.Creates League of Nations—international organization to keep peace.Blames Germans for war, forces Germany to pay damages (reparations) to nations.League to rule German colonies until deemed ready for independence.
37Treaty of Versailles (Verse-EYE) The French and English insisted on punishment of Germany.A League of Nations was created.National boundaries were redrawn, creating many new nations.
38Wilson’s 14 Points Wilson’s goals for the world after the war “War to end all wars!”
39Principles of 14 Points Self determination Arms reduction Non punishmentFree SeasNo secret treatiesFree trade
4014th Point League of Nations Settle conflicts before they turn into warWilson’s most important pointMost controversial
41Treaty of Versailles Germany League of Nations created Full blame for warDemilitarized$30 Billion bill (reparations)League of Nations createdNo GermanyNo U.S.
421917 Revolution and Rise of Communism Tsarist Russia entered World War I as an absolute monarchy with sharp class divisions between the nobility and the peasants. The grievances of workers and peasants were not resolved by the Tsar. Inadequate administration in World War I led to revolution and an unsuccessful provisional government. A second revolution by the Bolsheviks created the communist state that ultimately became the U.S.S.R.
43QuestionsWhy did Russia erupt in revolution while fighting in World War I?How did communism rise in Russia?
44Causes of 1917 Revolutions Defeat in war with Japan in 1905 Landless peasantryIncompetence of Tsar Nicholas IIMilitary defeats and high casualties in World War I.
45Russian Revolution Czar Nicholas II’s reforms were too little too late No industrial power = no national powerLoss to the Japanese was humiliating announcement of weaknessWWI participation sucked Russia dry and made civil war inevitableWeak resistance to well organized and mobilized Bolshevik radicalsTotal abdication and assassination end the Romanov Dynasty
46Rise of communism Bolshevik Revolution and civil war Vladimir Lenin’s New Economic Policy (NEP)Joseph Stalin, Lenin’s successorAccording to communism, history is dominated by the struggle between the bourgeoisie and the proletariat – the upper class and the laborer.Karl Marx, a German economist/philosopher is credited with the idea of communism.
47Vladimir Lenin Marxist Revolutionary NEP allowed some capitalism and helped Soviet economy recover from early communist stagnationDies of stroke, 1924
48Leon Trotsky Co-founder with Lenin Organized and trained the RED ARMY Practice of decimation made Red Army “effective”Rival of Stalin’Assassinated in Mexico with an ice-pick
49Understanding the League of Nations and the mandate system After World War I, international organizations and agreements were established to avoid future conflicts.What was the League of Nations and why did it fail?Why was the mandate system created?
50League of Nations International cooperative organization Established to prevent future warsUnited States not a memberFailure of League because it did not have power to enforce its decisions
51The mandate systemDuring World War I, Great Britain and France agreed to divide large portions of the Ottoman Empire in the Middle East between themselves.After the war, the “mandate system” gave Great Britain and France control over the lands that became Iraq, Transjordan, and Palestine (British controlled) and Syria and Lebanon (French controlled)The division of the Ottoman Empire through the mandate system planted the seeds for future conflicts in the Middle East.
54New European Countries Post World War I Finland-land lost by RussiaEstonia-land lost by RussiaLatvia-land lost by RussiaLithuania-land lost by RussiaPoland-restored from land lost by Germany and RussiaCzechoslovakiaAustriaHungaryRomania-gained landYugoslavia
55Mandates in Africa and Middle East French Mandate of SyriaFrench Mandate of LebanonBritish Mandate of PalestineBritish Mandate of TransjordanBritish Mandate of IraqBritish TogolandFrench TogolandBritish CameroonFrench CameroonRuanda-UrundiTanganyikaSouth-West Africa
56“A Peace Built on Quicksand” Treaty of Versailles creates feelings of bitterness on both sidesGerman people feel bitter and betrayed after taking blame for warAmerica never ratifies Treaty of VersaillesMany Americans oppose League of Nations and involvement with EuropeSome former colonies express anger over not winning independenceJapan, Italy criticize agreement; gain less land than they want