Presentation on theme: "Observational Learning pp 503-527. Learning Intentions Be able to compare Classical and Operant Conditioning How One Trial Learning Occurs How one learns."— Presentation transcript:
Observational Learning pp
Learning Intentions Be able to compare Classical and Operant Conditioning How One Trial Learning Occurs How one learns through observation What Bandura discovered about children modelling behaviour
One Trial Learning PURPOSE: To experiment with the effect of One Trial Learning To associate one trial learning with classical conditioning We need 3 volunteers…
Experiment There are 5 foods the participants are required to taste while blindfolded. These foods are chocolate, peach, cereal, flour/salt and coke zero Give subjects a sample of each in the order shown above. Subjects are to whisper their guess to you. Pretend to be interested and ask them if they are sure. Number each test as you give it to them. With the flour/salt combo put a decent amount on the spoon and ask them to open wide to ensure they get a decent taste. Make sure all subjects do this at the same time. Give them a good drink of coke to allow them to wash out the taste. You now need to pretend they got two wrong. Of course one will be the flour/salt mix. Do this quietly so the other subjects don’t realise they are all doing the same retest. The purpose of the experiment is to record the observations of the subjects when they are asked to retaste the flour/salt. Watch some subjects refuse.
Notes: One Trial Learning A form of learning involving a behaviour that occurs with only one experience The association between stimuli and response is strong and therefore considerably resistant to extinction Taste aversion: A learned response involving avoidance of food associated with being or feeling ill Eg: The class activity involving the flour/salt mixture or having food poisoning after eating something and not liking it in future. Make some notes about this on your SAC record sheet
Elements of Observational Learning 1. Attention: The more similar and attractive the model is the more likely you are to imitate their behaviour 2. Retention: Have to memorise steps involved 3. Reproduction: Need to be able to repeat the behaviour 4. Motivation-reinforcement: Learn it because you like it or you like the reward it brings
Observational Learning Observational Learning (aka modelling) occurs when someone uses observation of another person’s actions and their consequences to guide their future actions The model is the person being observed This method is more efficient than trial and error Vicarious conditioning involves modifying behaviour as a result of observation Complete Activity 5.7: I observe, therefore I am
Bandura’s Bobo Doll Subjects were 4 year old children There were three groups, each containing the same number of boys and girls Each film showed an adult model punching, kicking and verbally abusing a rubber doll called Bobo the clown Condition OneCondition TwoCondition Three Aggressive model rewarded Aggressive model punished No consequences for aggressive behaviour
After the video, children were placed in a room with a Bobo dolls and other toys Some children were rewarded for imitating the aggressive behaviour of the model from the film Children in Condition One and Three were more aggressive When offered a reward, children were more aggressive. Girls were less aggressive than boys but when offered a reward were equally aggressive A cognitive representation: A mental picture of what has been observed but is not necessarily used until an incentive is offered. Stick handout into books after notes
Insight Learning A sudden sensation of a solution to a problem following a period of mental manipulation, or reorganisation of information associated with the problem. Kohler’s (1925) stick problem, the solution requires the chimpanzee to insert a small stick into a hollow, larger one to make an implement long enough to reach the desired banana.
Stages of Insight Learning 1. Preparation: Get ready - by gathering as much information as possible 2. Incubation: Time out - information is reflected on in the background 3. Insightful experience: Ah ha – the solution to the problem comes in a flash 4. Verification: Solution – is acted on and tested Try to solve the puzzles on the handout