Associative Learning Classical – Learn associations between 2 different stimuli Operant – Learning associations between behaviors and consequences
Neutral Stimulus (NS) Unconditioned stimulus (US) Unconditioned response (UR) Conditioned Stimulus (CS) Conditioned Response (CR) Bell Will not make a dog salivate alone Food Salivation Bell Associated with food, now makes dog salivate Salivation
Stimuli triggers an involuntary BIOLOGICAL response What are some example you came up with?? Write down the US, UR, CS and CR for this story. A man falls in love with a woman. She begins always wearing a vanilla scented perfume. Every time he is around her, he becomes overwhelmed with feelings of attraction and love. After a couple of years, the two break up. Now, every time the man smells vanilla, he becomes amorous.
How is this learning? Example: Video Video Psychologists refer to learning as a “relatively permanent change in behavior as a result of experience” Learning by association Extinction unlearning response to stimulus Generalization attaching a learned response to a similar stimuli
Learning that involves a system of rewards and punishments for behavior. Where have you heard these terms before…a paradigm maybe?? Based off of a system of reinforcements and Punishments Reinforcements: Positive and Negative The stimulus follows a behavior, increasing the likelihood that the behavior will be repeated.
Positive Receiving a reward for behavior Learn to associate behavior with rewards Video Video Negative removal or prevention of an unfavorable event or outcome after the display of a behavior Do not confuse with punishment!! What are some examples of this?
Walking with a stone in your shoe…causes you pain…removing the stone, relieves the pain. Putting on sunscreen before going to the beach. Escape conditioning Avoidance conditioning
The idea that people can learn through observation in a social context. Internal mental states are an essential part of this process. Recognizes that just because something has been learned, it does not mean that it will result in a change in behavior. Bobo doll experiment Internal rewards, such as pride and feelings of accomplishment We are able to learn new behavior without demonstrating new behavior.
Modeling Not all behaviors are effectively learned Steps must be followed in order to learn Attention – you must first pay attention!! Retention – You must be able to retain the information! Be able to store the info and pull it out later. Reproduction - Once info is retained, then you can begin to perform the behavior…and “practice makes perfect” Motivation – You must find the desire to retain and reproduce behavior. Rewards and Punishments help with motivation!
Observational Learning Watching someone and being able to imitate it Disinhibition Watching bad behavior go unpunished increases chances of engaging in that behavior What are some examples of social learning? Commercials! Clapping when everyone else does. Looking up at a building if others are. You can experiment with this concept to see if it works!
Punishments must be severe, immediate and consistent—if not, behavior hardly changes Produce unwanted side effects (aggression, depression) Learned avoidance—stay away from punisher Video game violence Think of what stages children (and some adults with developmental disabilities or psychological disorders) are in cognitively and morally. Does this affect influence of game??