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AP Psychology Social and Cognitive Learning. Cognitive Learning Cognitive theorist argue that CC / OC have a cognitive component Pavlov’s contiguity model.

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Presentation on theme: "AP Psychology Social and Cognitive Learning. Cognitive Learning Cognitive theorist argue that CC / OC have a cognitive component Pavlov’s contiguity model."— Presentation transcript:

1 AP Psychology Social and Cognitive Learning

2 Cognitive Learning Cognitive theorist argue that CC / OC have a cognitive component Pavlov’s contiguity model – The strength of the association between two events is closely linked to the number of times that they have been paired

3 Cognitive Learning Rescorla’s contingency model – Robert Rescorla – Took into account more complex circumstances – It is necessary for one event to reliably predict another for a strong association between the two to result – A is contingent upon B when A depends upon B and vise versa

4 Cognitive Learning overjustification effect occurs when an expected external incentive such as money or prizes decreases a person's intrinsic motivation to perform a task people pay more attention to the external reward for an activity than to the inherent enjoyment and satisfaction received from the activity itself

5 Cognitive Learning overjustification effect The overall effect of offering a reward for a previously unrewarded activity is a shift to extrinsic motivation and the undermining of pre-existing intrinsic motivation. Once rewards are no longer offered, interest in the activity is lost; prior intrinsic motivation does not return, and extrinsic rewards must be continuously offered as motivation to sustain the activity


7 Cognitive Learning Behaviorists believe that CC and OC explain almost all learning Cognitive psychologists believe that the behaviorist underestimate the importance of cognitive processes Argue that cognitive or mental processes such as thinking and perception also play a key role in learning Insight Learning / Insight Learning

8 Insight Learning Wolfgang Kohler (1887-1967) Sultan (chimpanzee) Suspended bananas just outside the reach of Sultan Sultan did not solve through trial-and-error (like rats and pigeons) Sultan studied the problems and in a flash of insight used a stick to knock down the fruit

9 Insight Learning Studies

10 Insight Learning - Sultan

11 Insight Learning Insight Learning – sudden understanding of how to solve a problem Behavior could not be explained by either CC or OC

12 Latent Learning Edward Tolman (1898-1956) Rats in a maze

13 Latent Learning Latent = hidden Learning that becomes evident only once a reinforcement is given for demonstrating it

14 Latent Learning Group 1 of rats ran through a maze to obtain food Group 2 of rats explored the maze without receiving food Some time later… – Tolman compared the two groups to determine how quickly they could find the food at the end of maze – Tolman reported that the second group of untrained rats found the food as quickly as the first group of trained rats

15 Latent Learning

16 Tolman said the untrained rats developed a “cognitive map” or “mental maps” of the maze They used this latent or hidden learning to rapidly find the food Latent learning is not outwardly used until the situation calls for it


18 Observational Learning Occurs through watching others and then imitating or modeling the observed behavior Aka… Social Learning, Vicarious Learning Biological Basis – mirror neurons in the cerebral cortex – fires both when an animal acts and when the animal observes the same action performed by another

19 Observational Learning Modeling - process of observing and imitating a specific behavior Two basic components – Observation and Imitation Example…Hitting a baseball – Observation – watching the older brother, a young boy learns to hit a baseball – Imitation – next, he picks up a bat and tries to imitate that behavior

20 Bobo Doll Studies Albert Bandura (1925) Group 1-2 - Allowed 4-year old children to separately watch a live or televised adult model aggressively kick, punch, and shout at a large inflated Bobo doll Group 3 – control group did not watch aggressive models

21 Bandura – Bobo Doll Bandura then allowed the children to play in a room with several toys including a Bobo doll Group 1-2 (children who watched live or televised aggressive model) were much more likely to imitate the aggressive behavior that the control group (Group 3)

22 Children are more likely to imitate actions of a role model or someone of higher status

23 Observational Learning Powerful influence on behavior Examples… – A high school BB player attends a summer camp taught be college players. The HS player returns home an incorporates their moves, trash talk, and training practices in his game – Parents want to teach their 5-year-old twins to share a bedroom. The parents model sharing by demonstrating such cooperative behaviors as making the bed, hanging up clothes, and sweeping the floor

24 Abstract Learning Involves understanding concepts (such as tree or same) rather than learning to press a bar or peck a dish in order to secure a reward Believe some of the animals in Skinner boxes were able to understand some concepts

25 Abstract Learning Example… Pigeons have been shown a particular shape (square or triangle) – In one trial they were awarded when they pecked the same shape – In another they were awarded when they pecked a different shape * Suggests that pigeons “understand” concepts and are not simply forming S  R connections

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