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Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 How Does Cognitive Psychology Explain Learning? According to cognitive psychology, some forms of learning must be explained as changes in mental processes, rather than as changes in behavior alone
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Insight Learning – Problem solving occurs by means of a sudden reorganization of perceptions.. suddenly perceiving familiar objects in new forms or relationships Cognitive Maps – A mental representation of physical space How Does Cognitive Psychology Explain Learning?
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Wolfgang Köhler and Insight Learning Example: chimp stacks crates to reach food This is a form of cognitive learning Behaviorism has no convincing stimulus-response explanation for Kohler’s demonstration.
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Köhler observed the manner in which chimpanzees solve problems, such as that of retrieving bananas when positioned out of reach. He found that they stacked wooden crates to use as makeshift ladders, in order to retrieve the food. Köhler concluded that the chimps had not arrived at these methods through trial- and-error (which Thorndike had claimed to be the basis of all animal learning, through his law of effect) Rather they had experienced an insight (also known as an “aha experience”), in which, having realized the answer, they then proceeded to carry it out in a way that was “purposeful.”
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Edward Tolman’s Cognitive Map Organisms learn the spatial layout of their environments by exploration, even if they are not reinforced for exploring (Evolutionary perspective: Animals forging for food)
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Argued that is was a cognitive map that accounted for a rat quickly selecting an alternative route in a maze when the preferred path was blocked Challenged the work of Pavlov, Watson, and Skinner Claimed learning was mental, not behavioral. Edward Tolman’s Cognitive Map
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Examples of Cognitive Maps Giving directions Walking through your house in the dark
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Observational Learning: Bandura’s Challenge to Behaviorism A form of cognitive learning We learn by watching others’ behavior and the consequences of their behavior Albert Bandura: Proposed that rewards can be effective if we merely see someone else get them
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Observational Learning Accounts for such things as the rapid spread of clothing fashions and slang expressions
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Bandura’ Bobo Doll Experiment 1961 Bandura found that the children exposed to the aggressive model were more likely to act in physically aggressive ways than those who were not exposed to the aggressive model.
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 The Bobo Doll Experiment Video Albert Bandura
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Children See, Children Do
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Recent Cognitive Psychologists Findings Rescorla Has shown that the most critical feature of a CS is its value in predicting when the US will occur – EX: Taste aversion- a certain flavor/smell could server as a warning for illness Kamin Expanded on this concept and demonstrated that a CS - R connection only occurs if the CS contains unique information about the UCS – When presents with multiple possible CS, a subject will only become conditioned to the one that provided the best info EX: Flu=eat Taco Bell food or smells become the CS CS is not the Taco Bell sign, the colors blue, pink, and purple, bells, fountain drink stations, etc…
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Summary Reinforcement changes not only the behavior but also the individual’s expectations for future rewards and punishments in similar situations. Reinforcement changes expectations and behavior
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Brain Mechanisms and Learning Long-term Potentiation Biological process involving the strengthening of synapses in groups of nerve cells; believed to be the neural basis of learning Dopamine a “reward neurotransmitter” is released in mammals w/ Operant Conditioning. Continuous Reinforcement of behavior releases dopamine, which brings pleasure and strengthens the neural pathway associated with that behavior, making a LASTING behavior
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Are There Two Learning Circuits?? Simple ‘mindless’ learning, like learning to ride a bike More complex learning that requires conscious processing: concept formation, insight learning, observational learning, memory of specific events.
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 End of Chapter 6
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007
Cognitive Learning Objective: Describe how conditioning has a cognitive component through notes and discussion.
©John Wiley & Sons, Inc Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e) Psychology in Action (8e) by Karen Huffman PowerPoint Lecture Notes Presentation Chapter.
Learning – Operant Conditioning AP Psychology Chapter 6.
Introduction to Psychology, 7th Edition, Rod Plotnik Module 9: Classical Conditioning Module 9 Classical Conditioning.
Lecture Overview Classical Conditioning Operant Conditioning Cognitive-Social Learning The Biology of Learning Using Conditioning & Learning Principles.
THE PSYCHOLOGY OF LEARNING
SCHEDULES OF REINFORCEMENT 1. RATIO SCHEDULES PROVIDE A REWARD AFTER A CERTAIN NUMBER OF RESPONSES (RATIO = NUMBER) 2. INTERVAL SCHEDULES PROVIDE REWARD.
Reinforcement Schedules Intermittent Reinforcement: A type of reinforcement schedule by which some, but not all, correct responses are reinforced. Intermittent.
AP Psychology Social and Cognitive Learning. Cognitive Learning Cognitive theorist argue that CC / OC have a cognitive component Pavlov’s contiguity model.
Key Questions What sort of learning does Classical Conditioning explain? How do we learn new behaviors by operant conditioning? How does cognitive.
LEARNING Psychology. DEFINITION Learning is defined: ◦_____________________________________________ _____________________________________________ _____________________________________________.
Learning Orange Group. Classical conditioning- a type of learning in which an organism comes to associate stimuli. ex: Dog salivate to food Bell rings-No.
Learning Part II. Overview Habituation Classical conditioning Instrumental/operant conditioning Observational learning.
Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2007 Chapter 6 Learning This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited.
Classical Conditioning, Operant Conditioning, and Observational Learning Learning Conditioning Watson Thorndike Behavior Reinforcement Skinner Operants.
Chapter 6 Learning Learning Learning – A process through which experience produces lasting change in behavior or mental processes Habituation – Learning.
Learning Theories Learning To gain knowledge, understanding, or skill, by study, instruction, or experience.
HOW DO WE LEARN? Conditioning –process of learning associations Classical conditioning- we learn to associate two stimuli and anticipate events. In classical.
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