Presentation on theme: "Learning Orange Group. Classical conditioning- a type of learning in which an organism comes to associate stimuli. ex: Dog salivate to food Bell rings-No."— Presentation transcript:
Classical conditioning- a type of learning in which an organism comes to associate stimuli. ex: Dog salivate to food Bell rings-No salvation Bell rings-food is shown
Operant conditioning- a type of learning in which behavior is strengthened if followed by reinforcer or diminished if followed by a punisher ex:..............................................
Observational learning- Albert Bandura stated that behavior is learned from the environment through the process of observational learning. Ex: Bobo doll experiment.
Acquisition-Initial learning of the stimulus response relationship. Ex:Pavlov had to figure out how much time should elapse between presenting the neutral stimulus and the unconditioned stimulus.The answer is not much
Extinction: diminishing of conditioned response- occurs when an UCS is no longer followed by a CS. Ex. Pavlov found that if he rang the tone again and again without presenting food the dogs salivated less. Spontaneous recovery- reappearance, after a rest period of an extinguished conditioned response
Generalization- a response that has been conditioned for stimuli similar to the conditioned stimulus. ex: little albert was shown a white rat followed by a loud noise. Soon, little albert was scared of all white furry things.
Discrimination- the learned ability to distinguish between a conditioned stimulus and other stimuli that do not signal an unconditioned stimulus. Positive punishment- administer an aversive stimulus. Negative punishment- withdraw an aversive stimulus. Positive Reinforcement: the addition of a reinforcing stimulus following a behavior that makes it more likely that the behavior will occur again in the future. Negative Reinforcement: a response or behavior is strengthened by stopping, removing, or avoiding a negative outcome.
motivation- a need or desire that energizes and directs behavior. fixed ratio schedule- reinforces a sesponse only after a specified number of responses. variable ratio schedule- reinforces a response after an unpredictable amount of time fixed interval schedule- reinforces a response after a specified time has elapsed. variable interval schedule- reinforces a response at unpredictable time intervals.
Latent Learning- at occurs but is not apparent until there is an incentive ex: the rat experienced this until there was an incentive. insight learning- Problem solving that happens all-of-a sudden ex: chimpanzees, learn to use a stick to pull bananas from outside his cage by putting pieces of sticks together.
learning predispositions can occur by genetics alone.
ALBERT BANDURA - Bobo doll study (observational learning) we look & we learn. reinforcement & punishments. JOHN GARCIA- Studied taste aversion in rats. wondered whether classical conditioning was the reason why the rats avoided drinking water from the plastic bottles of radiation. Ex- you get sick after eating a fish taco. so the next time the smell and the taste will become a (CS) for nausea. KEY CONTRIBUTORS …
IVAN PAVLOV - Studied classical conditioning on dogs. UCS (see’s the food) UCR (salvation) then he added a bell. CS (the bell) CR (Salivate) ROBERT RESCORLA - Made refinements to classical conditioning theories. (1988) said that conditioning occurs better when the CS & UCS have a relationship that would lead the scientist to say that CS causes UCS EX: a person receiving therapy for alcoholism are give a alcohol spiked w/ a nauseating drug. KEY CONTRIBUTORS…
B.F. Skinner- Operant conditioning animals Edward Thorndike- formulated the law of effect: behaviors followed by good consequences are more likely to be repeated. John B. Watson- studied behavioral effects of conditioning on children. Edward Tolman- studied learning in rats and latent learning.