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Cognitive Learning Objective: Describe how conditioning has a cognitive component through notes and discussion.

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Presentation on theme: "Cognitive Learning Objective: Describe how conditioning has a cognitive component through notes and discussion."— Presentation transcript:

1 Cognitive Learning Objective: Describe how conditioning has a cognitive component through notes and discussion.

2 From a Behaviorist Point of View…
Remember… Behaviorists study learning without reference to cognitive process. Psychologists today acknowledge that classical and operant conditionings have a cognitive element.

3 Robert Rescorla’s Contingency Model of Classical Conditioning
Rescorla believed that thoughts and expectations (cognition) affects our ability to learn. So he designed an experiment similar to Pavlov’s that shows that there is an aspect of cognition when conditioning takes place.

4 Robert Rescorla’s Contingency Model of Classical Conditioning
Dog 1 (Rocco) – 10 presentations of bell and food paired Dog 2 (Sparky) – 10 pairings of bell and food but presentations are intertwined with 5 presentations of bell and no food and 5 presentations with food and no bell. Which dog learns best to salivate at the bell? ROCCO!! Why? When two significant events occur close together in time, the animal learns the predictability of the second event. Rocco and Sparky’s thoughts and expectations influence their learning

5 Observational Learning - Bandura
Observational Learning – Albert Bandura aka social learning theory Modeling – the process of observing and imitating a specific behavior. Cognitive component: observation must include a mental understanding of what is being observed. Ex. Young girls “parents” baby dolls as she sees her parents treat her Ex. Children learn violent behavior from television or video games.

6 Bandura’s Bobo Doll Experiment
Child and Adult in same room, child is playing and watches an adult hit and kick an inflatable bobo doll for ten minutes. Child is then moved to another room where there are many toys. Child is told he/she cannot play with those toys and that they are for the other children. Child is taken to another room where there are a few toys, including a bobo doll. Children that saw violent play were more likely to hit and kick the bobo doll.

7 Footage/Explanation of Social Learning Theory
Albert Bandura, Social Learning and his Bobo Doll experiment Baby dances to Single Ladies-Beyonce(funny) – YouTube Children See, Children Do

8 Mirror Neurons Found in the Frontal Lobe Area
Provide a neural basis for observational learning These neurons fire when a monkey performs a task… they also fire when the monkey observes another monkey perform the task. Humans have mirror neurons too!

9 Mirror neuron Videos VS Ramachandran: The neurons that shaped civilization mirror neurons – YouTube (1:10)

10 Latent Learning – Edward Tolman
Latent learning – (hidden learning) learning that is obvious only once reinforcement is given for demonstrating it.

11 Latent Learning – Tolman
Tolman’s Latent Learning Experiment with Rats in Mazes Three groups of rats Group 1 – rewarded each time they completed the maze Performance improved steadily throughout trials Group 2 – never received a reward for completing the maze Performance improved only slightly throughout the trials Group 3 – not rewarded first half of trials and then rewarded during second half of trials Performance first half – similar to group 2 Performance second half – performance improved dramatically and suddenly once rewarded

12 Cognition and Tolman During the first trials for Group 3, learning had occurred, it simply was not evident until the reward was given. How is cognition involved? Rats seem to develop a cognitive map, mental representation of one’s environment, of the maze. Latent Learning and Cognitive Map - YouTube

13 Insight Learning - Kohler
Insight Learning – learning to solve a problem by understanding various parts of the problem Wolfgang Kohler studied insight learning in chimpanzees Kohler placed chimpanzees in certain situations and watched them solve the problems Ex. Hanging a banana out of the chimpanzee’s reach Solution: Monkeys stacked boxes on top of one another to get to the banana Kohler believed that the monkeys could not have come to the solution without a cognitive understanding of how to solve the problem.

14 Insight Learning

15 Insight Learning Videos
Chimpanzee Problem Solving – YouTube Pigeons figure out how to get banana

16 (REVIEW) People to Know ….
Pavlov Watson Garcia Thorndike Skinner Rescorla Bandura Tolman Kohler

17 People to Know …. Pavlov – Pavlov’s Dog, Classical Conditioning
Watson – Little Albert, Cl. Cond. Garcia – Taste Aversions, Cl. Cond. Thorndike – Law of Effect, Operant Conditioning Skinner – Skinner Box, Operant Conditioning Rescorla – Contingency Model of Classical Cond. Bandura – Bobo Dolls, Observational Learning Tolman – Latent Learning Kohler – Insight learning

18 (REVIEW) Types of Learning …
Classical, Operant Conditioning BF Skinner's Operant Conditioning/ chapter review Contingency Model of Classical Conditioning Observational Learning Latent Learning Insight Learning

19 Review With Video Clips
Psychology - Learning-Classical & Operant Conditioning (start 1:15) Teach a dog to “Take a Nap”

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