Presentation on theme: "Cognitive Learning Objective: Describe how conditioning has a cognitive component through notes and discussion."— Presentation transcript:
1Cognitive LearningObjective: Describe how conditioning has a cognitive component through notes and discussion.
2From a Behaviorist Point of View… Remember… Behaviorists study learning without reference to cognitive process. Psychologists today acknowledge that classical and operant conditionings have a cognitive element.
3Robert Rescorla’s Contingency Model of Classical Conditioning Rescorla believed that thoughts and expectations (cognition) affects our ability to learn. So he designed an experiment similar to Pavlov’s that shows that there is an aspect of cognition when conditioning takes place.
4Robert Rescorla’s Contingency Model of Classical Conditioning Dog 1 (Rocco) – 10 presentations of bell and food pairedDog 2 (Sparky) – 10 pairings of bell and food but presentations are intertwined with 5 presentations of bell and no food and 5 presentations with food and no bell.Which dog learns best to salivate at the bell?ROCCO!! Why?When two significant events occur close together in time, the animal learns the predictability of the second event.Rocco and Sparky’s thoughts and expectations influence their learning
5Observational Learning - Bandura Observational Learning – Albert Bandura aka social learning theoryModeling – the process of observing and imitating a specific behavior.Cognitive component: observation must include a mental understanding of what is being observed.Ex. Young girls “parents” baby dolls as she sees her parents treat herEx. Children learn violent behavior from television or video games.
6Bandura’s Bobo Doll Experiment Child and Adult in same room, child is playing and watches an adult hit and kick an inflatable bobo doll for ten minutes. Child is then moved to another room where there are many toys. Child is told he/she cannot play with those toys and that they are for the other children. Child is taken to another room where there are a few toys, including a bobo doll. Children that saw violent play were more likely to hit and kick the bobo doll.
7Footage/Explanation of Social Learning Theory Albert Bandura, Social Learning and his Bobo Doll experimentBaby dances to Single Ladies-Beyonce(funny) – YouTubeChildren See, Children Do
8Mirror Neurons Found in the Frontal Lobe Area Provide a neural basis for observational learningThese neurons fire when a monkey performs a task… they also fire when the monkey observes another monkey perform the task.Humans have mirror neurons too!
9Mirror neuron VideosVS Ramachandran: The neurons that shaped civilizationmirror neurons – YouTube (1:10)
10Latent Learning – Edward Tolman Latent learning – (hidden learning) learning that is obvious only once reinforcement is given for demonstrating it.
11Latent Learning – Tolman Tolman’s Latent Learning Experiment with Rats in MazesThree groups of ratsGroup 1 – rewarded each time they completed the mazePerformance improved steadily throughout trialsGroup 2 – never received a reward for completing the mazePerformance improved only slightly throughout the trialsGroup 3 – not rewarded first half of trials and then rewarded during second half of trialsPerformance first half – similar to group 2Performance second half – performance improved dramatically and suddenly once rewarded
12Cognition and TolmanDuring the first trials for Group 3, learning had occurred, it simply was not evident until the reward was given.How is cognition involved?Rats seem to develop a cognitive map, mental representation of one’s environment, of the maze.Latent Learning and Cognitive Map - YouTube
13Insight Learning - Kohler Insight Learning – learning to solve a problem by understanding various parts of the problemWolfgang Kohler studied insight learning in chimpanzeesKohler placed chimpanzees in certain situations and watched them solve the problemsEx. Hanging a banana out of the chimpanzee’s reachSolution: Monkeys stacked boxes on top of one another to get to the bananaKohler believed that the monkeys could not have come to the solution without a cognitive understanding of how to solve the problem.