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Cognitive Learning Objective: Describe how conditioning has a cognitive component through notes and discussion.

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Presentation on theme: "Cognitive Learning Objective: Describe how conditioning has a cognitive component through notes and discussion."— Presentation transcript:

1 Cognitive Learning Objective: Describe how conditioning has a cognitive component through notes and discussion.

2 From a Behaviorist Point of View… Remember… Behaviorists study learning without reference to cognitive process. Psychologists today acknowledge that classical and operant conditionings have a cognitive element. Remember… Behaviorists study learning without reference to cognitive process. Psychologists today acknowledge that classical and operant conditionings have a cognitive element.

3 Robert Rescorla’s Contingency Model of Classical Conditioning Rescorla believed that thoughts and expectations (cognition) affects our ability to learn. So he designed an experiment similar to Pavlov’s that shows that there is an aspect of cognition when conditioning takes place. Rescorla believed that thoughts and expectations (cognition) affects our ability to learn. So he designed an experiment similar to Pavlov’s that shows that there is an aspect of cognition when conditioning takes place.

4 Robert Rescorla’s Contingency Model of Classical Conditioning Dog 1 (Rocco) – 10 presentations of bell and food paired Dog 1 (Rocco) – 10 presentations of bell and food paired Dog 2 (Sparky) – 10 pairings of bell and food but presentations are intertwined with 5 presentations of bell and no food and 5 presentations with food and no bell. Dog 2 (Sparky) – 10 pairings of bell and food but presentations are intertwined with 5 presentations of bell and no food and 5 presentations with food and no bell. Which dog learns best to salivate at the bell? Which dog learns best to salivate at the bell? –ROCCO!! Why? –When two significant events occur close together in time, the animal learns the predictability of the second event. –Rocco and Sparky’s thoughts and expectations influence their learning

5 Observational Learning - Bandura Observational Learning – Albert Bandura aka social learning theory Observational Learning – Albert Bandura aka social learning theory –Modeling – the process of observing and imitating a specific behavior. –Cognitive component: observation must include a mental understanding of what is being observed. –Ex. Young girls “parents” baby dolls as she sees her parents treat her –Ex. Children learn violent behavior from television or video games.

6 Bandura’s Bobo Doll Experiment Bandura’s Bobo Doll Experiment Bandura’s Bobo Doll Experiment –Child and Adult in same room, child is playing and watches an adult hit and kick an inflatable bobo doll for ten minutes. Child is then moved to another room where there are many toys. Child is told he/she cannot play with those toys and that they are for the other children. Child is taken to another room where there are a few toys, including a bobo doll. Children that saw violent play were more likely to hit and kick the bobo doll.

7 Footage/Explanation of Social Learning Theory Albert Bandura, Social Learning and his Bobo Doll experiment Albert Bandura, Social Learning and his Bobo Doll experiment Albert Bandura, Social Learning and his Bobo Doll experiment Albert Bandura, Social Learning and his Bobo Doll experiment Baby dances to Single Ladies- Beyonce(funny) – YouTube Baby dances to Single Ladies- Beyonce(funny) – YouTube Baby dances to Single Ladies- Beyonce(funny) – YouTube Baby dances to Single Ladies- Beyonce(funny) – YouTube Children See, Children Do Children See, Children Do Children See, Children Do Children See, Children Do

8 Mirror Neurons Found in the Frontal Lobe Area Found in the Frontal Lobe Area Provide a neural basis for observational learning Provide a neural basis for observational learning These neurons fire when a monkey performs a task… they also fire when the monkey observes another monkey perform the task. These neurons fire when a monkey performs a task… they also fire when the monkey observes another monkey perform the task. Humans have mirror neurons too! Humans have mirror neurons too!

9 Mirror neuron Videos VS Ramachandran: The neurons that shaped civilization VS Ramachandran: The neurons that shaped civilization VS Ramachandran: The neurons that shaped civilization VS Ramachandran: The neurons that shaped civilization mirror neurons – YouTube (1:10) mirror neurons – YouTube (1:10) mirror neurons – YouTube mirror neurons – YouTube

10 Latent Learning – Edward Tolman Latent learning – (hidden learning) learning that is obvious only once reinforcement is given for demonstrating it. Latent learning – (hidden learning) learning that is obvious only once reinforcement is given for demonstrating it.

11 Latent Learning – Tolman Tolman’s Latent Learning Experiment with Rats in Mazes Tolman’s Latent Learning Experiment with Rats in Mazes –Three groups of rats Group 1 – rewarded each time they completed the maze Group 1 – rewarded each time they completed the maze –Performance improved steadily throughout trials Group 2 – never received a reward for completing the maze Group 2 – never received a reward for completing the maze –Performance improved only slightly throughout the trials Group 3 – not rewarded first half of trials and then rewarded during second half of trials Group 3 – not rewarded first half of trials and then rewarded during second half of trials –Performance first half – similar to group 2 –Performance second half – performance improved dramatically and suddenly once rewarded

12 Cognition and Tolman During the first trials for Group 3, learning had occurred, it simply was not evident until the reward was given. During the first trials for Group 3, learning had occurred, it simply was not evident until the reward was given. How is cognition involved? How is cognition involved? –Rats seem to develop a cognitive map, mental representation of one’s environment, of the maze. –Latent Learning and Cognitive Map - YouTube Latent Learning and Cognitive Map - YouTubeLatent Learning and Cognitive Map - YouTube

13 Insight Learning - Kohler Insight Learning – learning to solve a problem by understanding various parts of the problem Insight Learning – learning to solve a problem by understanding various parts of the problem Wolfgang Kohler studied insight learning in chimpanzees Wolfgang Kohler studied insight learning in chimpanzees –Kohler placed chimpanzees in certain situations and watched them solve the problems Ex. Hanging a banana out of the chimpanzee’s reach Ex. Hanging a banana out of the chimpanzee’s reach –Solution: Monkeys stacked boxes on top of one another to get to the banana –Kohler believed that the monkeys could not have come to the solution without a cognitive understanding of how to solve the problem.

14 Insight Learning

15 Insight Learning Videos Chimpanzee Problem Solving – YouTube Chimpanzee Problem Solving – YouTube Chimpanzee Problem Solving – YouTube Chimpanzee Problem Solving – YouTube Pigeons figure out how to get banana Pigeons figure out how to get banana Pigeons figure out how to get banana Pigeons figure out how to get banana

16 (REVIEW) People to Know …. Pavlov Pavlov Watson Watson Garcia Garcia Thorndike Thorndike Skinner Skinner Rescorla Rescorla Bandura Bandura Tolman Tolman Kohler Kohler

17 People to Know …. Pavlov – Pavlov’s Dog, Classical Conditioning Pavlov – Pavlov’s Dog, Classical Conditioning Watson – Little Albert, Cl. Cond. Watson – Little Albert, Cl. Cond. Garcia – Taste Aversions, Cl. Cond. Garcia – Taste Aversions, Cl. Cond. Thorndike – Law of Effect, Operant Conditioning Thorndike – Law of Effect, Operant Conditioning Skinner – Skinner Box, Operant Conditioning Skinner – Skinner Box, Operant Conditioning Rescorla – Contingency Model of Classical Cond. Rescorla – Contingency Model of Classical Cond. Bandura – Bobo Dolls, Observational Learning Bandura – Bobo Dolls, Observational Learning Tolman – Latent Learning Tolman – Latent Learning Kohler – Insight learning Kohler – Insight learning

18 (REVIEW) Types of Learning … Classical, Operant Conditioning Classical, Operant Conditioning BF Skinner's Operant Conditioning/ chapter review BF Skinner's Operant Conditioning/ chapter review BF Skinner's Operant Conditioning/ chapter review BF Skinner's Operant Conditioning/ chapter review Contingency Model of Classical Conditioning Contingency Model of Classical Conditioning Observational Learning Observational Learning Latent Learning Latent Learning Insight Learning Insight Learning

19 Review With Video Clips Psychology - Learning-Classical & Operant ConditioningPsychology - Learning-Classical & Operant Conditioning (start 1:15) Psychology - Learning-Classical & Operant Conditioning Teach a dog to “Take a Nap” wId=206 Teach a dog to “Take a Nap” wId=206 wId=206 wId=206


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