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Cold War part 3 NSC 68 Leadership Developments in the Eastern Bloc.

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Presentation on theme: "Cold War part 3 NSC 68 Leadership Developments in the Eastern Bloc."— Presentation transcript:

1 Cold War part 3 NSC 68 Leadership Developments in the Eastern Bloc

2 One more document regarding the Origins of the Cold War




6 NSC-68

7 NSC 68 In 1950 the US National Security Council creates a top secret document that is signed by President Truman A formalization of the US Cold War Policy Outlines US Strategy to defeat the Soviet Union ( Blueprint) Becomes America’s guiding foreign policy document until 1991

8 Main Results Huge Military Buildup 1950 – $13 billion US military Budget -5% of GNP 1951- $60 billion – 19% of GNP increased the standing army of the United States to 3.5 million troops through a “peacetime conscription”

9 Korean War Notes from video

10 Changing of the Guard January 1953 Harry Truman hands over power to President Eisenhower (Republican) after deciding not to run for re-election March 6, 1953 Joseph Stalin dies in Moscow


12 Unlike his Republican predecessors, Eisenhower moved his party away from isolationist foreign policies Not only had he moved the Republican party away from isolationism, but he denounced Truman as “soft on communism,” and held Democrats responsible for losing China *** Will be reoccurring theme in US politics

13 Massive Retaliation 1) Reduce the American conventional armed forces (manpower, pay, and equipment) 2) Increase the amount of atomic weapons in the arsenal and bombers to deliver them 3) Establish a new doctrine that relies on America’s ability to retaliate with a massive nuclear strike capability against the USSR in the event of war

14 Why Massive Retaliation 1)Cheaper than large conventional armies protecting Europe 2)American air power (Long-range bombers from Europe and the USA) 3)Soviet Deficiencies (did not have the long-range bombers capable of striking the USA at this time) 4)Thus, USA was capable at devastating the USSR without fear of reprisal

15 B-52

16 NATO Expands With fears of Soviet aggression in the forefront of Western leaders, NATO decided to take on new members 1952 – Greece and Turkey enter NATO 1955 – West Germany enters NATO These events, especially Germany’s entry, would lead to increasing tensions with the Soviet Union

17 COMECON In response to the Marshall Plan, Stalin initiated the Council for Mutual Economic Assistance Stalin refused to allow the Eastern European countries to participate in the Marshall Plan Instead, he designed COMECON to integrate the economies of the USSR and Eastern Europe

18 Economic Imperialism? This system mainly benefited the USSR The USSR was able to sell raw materials to Eastern Europe in return for industrial goods This reliance on heavy industry at the neglect of consumer goods would severely limit the improvement of East European living standards

19 Stalin’s Death - 1953 Party leaders decided now to exercise collective control, and that NO Single Leader should ever dominate the party Immediately after Stalin’s death, Lavrenti Beria (NKVD boss/mass murderer) was arrested and executed In order to appeal to the other ethnic groups, the Politburo chose Nikita Khrushchev as Stalin’s successor

20 Nikita Khrushchev

21 Political Career He was a loyal communist and party boss Member of the Politburo and Central Committee of the Soviet Union He oversaw much of the purges personally for Stalin in the Ukraine during the 1930’s By 1953, with Stalin’s death he acknowledged the need for some changes

22 Foreign Policy Decisions In response to the creation of NATO, Khrushchev decided to form a military alliance for the Eastern Bloc nations in 1955 Warsaw Pact Countries Comprised of the Soviet Union, Poland, Czechoslovakia, East Germany, Hungary, Romania and Bulgaria

23 Warsaw Pact Nations

24 Warsaw Pact - 1955 These nations signed a 20 year mutual defence treaty This alliance was established to defend the Warsaw Pact from threats of NATO nations It would serve more effective in assisting the Soviets in controlling Eastern European countries

25 Sputnik - 1957

26 Khrushchev: Attempts at Reform In 1956, Khrushchev delivered what was to be termed as his “Secret Speech” to the 20 th Communist Party Congress He attacked Stalin for “crimes of his era and terror against the Soviet peoples” This was ironic since he oversaw much of the purges personally for Stalin in the Ukraine Allowed more cultural and intellectual freedom (known as the “Thaw”)

27 Criticisms Khrushchev did not try to reform society thoroughly, and placed all the blame on Stalin for the mass murder and imprisonment of millions While he pressed to loosen controls in the Soviet Union, he tightened restrictions in Eastern Europe

28 Post-War Eastern Europe Nations under Soviet occupation would find life hard under communist rule Collectivization, forced industrialization, terrible living standards, and subservience to Soviet rule led to much resentment As well, harsh rule by Stalin’s appointed leaders worsened the situation between Eastern European citizens and the Soviet leadership in Moscow

29 Challenges from Eastern Europe After Stalin’s death, people saw a chance for change While Khrushchev loosened controls of the media in the USSR, events in Eastern Europe would soon test his principles 1953 – East Berlin, East Germany After years of unrest, riots breakout Soviet troops move quickly to suppress these “counter-revolutionaries”

30 Poland - June 1956 workers rioted to protest shortages of food and consumer goods, bad housing, decline in real income, trade relations with the Soviet Union and poor management of the economy

31 Encouraged by Khrushchev's reforms, Poland’s communist leaders under Wladyslaw Gomulka start to relax political and economic controls This was to ease pressures from the riots and demonstrations over collectivization and suppression of the Catholic church While Khrushchev threatened to intervene, in the end he decided to back down Poland despite still under communist rule, gets more autonomy /control over own country

32 Hungarian Revolution Encouraged by events in Poland, riots and demonstrations occurred against the Soviet backed government in Hungary Reformer Imre Nagy returned from exile and was declared Prime Minister Nagy called for the release of all political prisoners, free elections, and the “neutralization” of Hungary (like Austria)



35 Soviet Response?


37 Invasion of Hungary In response to the collapse of a pro-Soviet government in Hungary, Khrushchev dispatched 250,000 troops, tanks and artillery to re-establish communist rule Imre Nagy, leader of the revolution was hanged and his body was thrown into a mass grave (over 3000 killed) Over 200,000 civilians flee Hungary for western Europe

38 Why invade Hungary? Why fear a successful Hungarian revolt: 1) Success would lead to a precedent that could be followed in the rest of Eastern Europe & collapse of Soviet power 2) Withdrawal would be seen as weakness by the West (NATO) and may increase tensions 3) Collapse in Hungary would hurt Soviet reputation with anti-colonial movements

39 Results of the “THAW”: Due to the wave on instability in Eastern Europe (Berlin, Poland and Hungary), the Soviet Union tightened its controls in its satellite nations to avoid further revolt Thus, while Khrushchev was able to loosen controls in the Soviet Union, he also ordered the tightening controls in Eastern Europe of fear of loosing its allies to the West

40 1947: Year of Partitions India and Pakistan


42 Decolonization - India and Pakistan 1885-1947: Indian National Congress Its goals is to demand independence for British India and promote development for the complex multiethnic nation Congress Party promotes a united, secular India with separation of church/state Along with the British trained Indian civil service, they feel India is ready for self- government

43 Ghandi and Nehru

44 Ethnic Strife in British India 1906-1947: Muslim League This group claimed to speak for millions of Muslims that were unwilling to live in an India dominated by Hindu’s and the Congress Party This group insisted on their own national state based on Islam

45 World War II During the Second World War, British India fought against Germany and Japan It enlisted over 6 million troops, and lost over 200,000 dead and wounded At home, the Congress Party and Muslim League supported the war In return, the British government promised independence after the end of the war

46 Partition - 1947 The British government attempted to negotiate a unified India The Congress Party and Muslim League remained irreconcilable Due to the economic turmoil in Britain, the government wanted to leave India quickly Britain decided to partition India in two


48 India and Pakistan Due to the urgency in Britain wanting to leave, the partition was conducted without much regard to the local inhabitants India was created with 350 million people (60 million of those being Muslim) Pakistan was created from 75 million people Due to demographics, Pakistan was established in two separate parts (modern Pakistan and Bangladesh)

49 Lord Mountbatten

50 Partition, Riots, Expulsion For the 17 million Hindus and Muslims that were now in separate countries, this created horrible circumstances Mass expulsions and migrations followed the partition of India and Pakistan Over a million people were killed Massacres spread to towns and cities Ghandi was assassinated for preaching tolerance and an end to violence



53 Jammu and Kashmir To the current day, these provinces are disputed by India and Pakistan Prince Maharajah Hari Singh of Jammu and Kashmir is claimed to have signed his territories over to India Pakistan never accepts this document and invades This results in a brief war and partition of the provinces between India and Pakistan

54 India and Pakistan Following a year of war between India and Pakistan over Kashmir, the United Nations stepped in and mediated a cease-fire between the two nations August 13, 1948, the cease-fire comes into effect While the cease-fire called for elections on the future of Kashmir, to this day these elections have never been held

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