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Two Nations Live on the Edge

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Presentation on theme: "Two Nations Live on the Edge"— Presentation transcript:

1 Two Nations Live on the Edge

2 Brinkmanship Rules U.S. Policy
1949 Soviets detonates their own atomic bomb, which sparks the beginning of the Nuclear arms race. The United States develops the H-Bomb. Soviets quickly develop their own.

3 "Well, I Got That In, All Right"
Source: Herblock, the Washington Post, January 1958.

4 The Policy of Brinkmanship
Eisenhower becomes president in 1952 and his secretary of state is John Foster Dulles. Dulles creates the Policy of Brinkmanship The United States threatens to use all of its weapons (including nuclear) against any country that threatens them. Willingness to go to the “Brink” of war.

The Problem of "Massive Retaliation" in the Missile Age Source: U.S. News and World Report, December 1957.

6 Source: Life magazine, May 1955.

7 The Cold War Spreads Around the World
Central Intelligence Agency begins to run covert operations in order to combat communism. Removed the Prime minister of Iran. Overthrew the government of Guatemala.

8 John Foster Dulles, Secretary of State, June 1954:
“If world communism captures any American State, however small, a new and perilous front is established which will increase the danger to the entire free world and require even greater sacrifices from the American people. This situation in Guatemala had become so dangerous that the American States could not ignore it. At Caracas last March, the American States held their Tenth Inter-American Conference. They then adopted a momentous statement. They declared that "the domination or control of the political institutions of any American State by the international Communist movement…would constitute a threat to the sovereignty and political independence of the American States, endangering the peace of America.”

9 A Summit in Geneva After Stalin's Death, the Soviet Union recognizes West Germany and signs peace treaties with Austria and Japan. After West Germany rearms, Soviets form Warsaw Pact. Eisenhower approached the Soviets in Geneva to allow a “open skies” policy, which would allow for openness of each others military strength. Soviets refused.

10 Crisis in the Middle East
1955 Egypt invades and captures the Suez Canal, which is controlled by France. Great Britain, France and Israel, declare war on Egypt. The Soviets support Egypt and threaten retaliation against the invaders. The United States then threatens the Soviets which causes a standoff. The United Nation eventually negotiates a cease fire.

11 Soviet Aggression in Hungary
People of Hungary began to move towards a break from the Soviet Union. As the threat of Hungary leaving the Warsaw Pact became real, the Soviets invaded. Creation of the Eisenhower Doctrine. The United States would defend all Middle Eastern countries against communism.

12 The Cold War Takes to the Skies
Sputnik is launched, causing fear and inferiority in the United States. Results on an emphasis of education in the United States. American Spy plane is shot down over the Soviet Union. This effects US – Soviet relations.

13 Source: Special Message to the Congress from President Eisenhower on Education, January “Because of the national security interest in the quality and scope of our educational system in the years immediately ahead, however, the Federal Government must also undertake to play an emergency role. The Administration is therefore recommending certain emergency Federal action to encourage and assist greater effort in specific areas of national concern. These recommendations place principal emphasis on our national security requirements If we are to maintain our position of leadership, we must see to it that today's young people are prepared to contribute the maximum to our future progress. Because of the growing importance of science and technology, we must necessarily give special-but by no means exclusive-attention to education in science and engineering.”

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