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 Clare Hargreaves-Norris Bones & Joints ACCESS HE Human Biology.

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Presentation on theme: " Clare Hargreaves-Norris Bones & Joints ACCESS HE Human Biology."— Presentation transcript:

1  Clare Hargreaves-Norris Bones & Joints ACCESS HE Human Biology

2  Clare Hargreaves-Norris Introduction  Bones are connected to each other by connective tissue.  Where two bones meet a joint is formed.  Without joints the skeleton would not be able to move or have very limited movement.  Fibrous connective tissue is used for immovable joints such is the cranium.  Fibro-cartilage is used for semi-moveable joints such as the vertebrae.  The most common joints are synovial joints and these hold freely moveable joints together by a connective tissue called a ligament.

3  Clare Hargreaves-Norris Synovial joints  Synovial joints have a fibrous capsule.  The fibrous capsule is lined with synovial membrane which secretes synovial fluid.  Synovial fluid lubricates the joint.  Articular cartilage coats the ends of the bones to protect against wear and tear by reducing friction at the joint.  Extra ligaments may surround the outside of the joint to provide extra strength.  Some joints also contain discs of cartilage to maintain stability.  However, the main support to the joints is provided by muscles.

4  Clare Hargreaves-Norris Synovial joints. There are several types of synovial joints. Ball and Socket. Hinge. Pivot. Saddle. Gliding. Condyliod.

5  Clare Hargreaves-Norris Planes of Movement.  Flexion, (bones of joints brought towards each other) and Extension, (straightening).  Abduction, (away from the body) and Adduction (towards the body).  Rotation, (turning around), Pronation (palms upwards) and Supination (palms downwards).

6  Clare Hargreaves-Norris Ball and socketLocationMovement  The hip and shoulder joints are an example of ball and socket joints.  The ball and socket joint is one of the most mobile joints.  It allows movement in three planes: Flexion and Extension. Abduction and Adduction. Rotation.

7  Clare Hargreaves-Norris Hinge jointLocationMovement  Examples of the hinge joint are the elbow and the joints of the phalanges in the foot and hand.  The hinge joint allows movement in one plane only: Flexion and Extension.

8  Clare Hargreaves-Norris Pivot jointLocationMovement  Pivot joints are located at the joint between the radius and ulna and in-between the atlas and axis (top two vertebrae at the base of the skull).  The pivot joint allows movement in one plane only: Rotation, Pronation and Supination.

9  Clare Hargreaves-Norris Gliding jointLocationMovement  The gliding joint is found in the foot, between the tarsals and in the hand, among the carpals.  Movement at the gliding joint occurs as two flat surfaces slide over each other.  In the hand, the carpals will slide over each to allow: Flexion, extension and radial or ulnar deviation. Likewise, in the foot, the tarsals slide over each other during pronation & supination.

10  Clare Hargreaves-Norris Condyloid jointLocationMovement  The condyloid joint is found at the knee joint and where the temporal and mandible bones meet.  The condyloid joint allows primary movement in mainly one plane: Flexion and Extension with small amounts Rotation also.

11  Clare Hargreaves-Norris Saddle jointLocationMovement  The saddle joint is only found at the site where the carpal bone meets the metacarpal bone of the thumb.  The saddle joint allows two planes of motion: Flexion and Extension. Abduction and adduction with a small amount of rotation also allowed.

12  Clare Hargreaves-Norris Terminology. Lamella: a thin layer. Lacuna: a small cavity or depresssion. Osteocyte: bone cell. Concentric: circular. Periosteum: hard outer shell of bone. Circumferential: around the edge. Trabecula: thin bars of bony tissue in cancellous (spongy) bone.

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