Presentation on theme: "Joints and Articulations Honors Anatomy & Physiology Ms. Susan Chabot."— Presentation transcript:
Joints and Articulations Honors Anatomy & Physiology Ms. Susan Chabot
Joints/Articulations Where two bones interconnect Structure of joint determines movement. Designed to meet the strength and flexibility required for movement.
Functions Bind parts of the skeleton. Allow for bone growth. Permit changes of skeleton during childbirth. Allow for movement. Vary considerably in structure and function. Classified based on degree of movement. AND/OR The type of tissue that bonds the bones together.
Quick Fact There are 230 joints/articulations in the body.
Structural Classification of Joints: How are they held together? Fibrous Joints: held together by collagen Cartilaginous Joints: held together by cartilage Synovial Joints: separated by cavity filled with fluid
Functional Classification of Joints: What kind of movement do they permit? Synarthrosis: immovable Amphiarthrosis: slightly movable Diarthrosis: freely movable
Synarthrosis: Typically Fibrous Joints No measurable movement occurs at this joint. Connect bones that are very close to one another. A thin layer of connective tissue joins the bones together. Example: sutures between bones of the skull.
Amphiarthrosis: Typically Cartilaginous Joints Allows limited movement. Absorbs shock. Use of hyaline cartilage to connect bone. Example: intervertebral discs.
Diarthrosis: Synovial Joints Most joints fit into this category. Permits free movement. Structurally complex. Ends of bones are covered with smooth cartilage = allows for gliding and prevents bones from rubbing together. Surrounds a joint capsule filled with fluid to lubricate joints. REMINDER! Ligaments join bone to bone. Tendons join muscle to bone!
Types of Synovial Joints Ball-and-socket Condyloid Gliding Hinge Pivot Saddle
Ball-and-Socket Bone with a rounded (ball-shaped) end that articulates with a cup-shaped cavity. WIDE range of motion Example: Shoulder and Hip
Condyloid Joint Oval shaped bone extension fits into a shallow cavity. Can move in different directions but NOT rotate. Example: between metacarpals (bone of palm) and phalanges (fingers).
Gliding Joint Articulations on an almost flat plane. Allow for sliding or twisting motion. Examples: – Between carpal (wrist) and tarsal (ankle) bones. – Sternum and ribs. – Sacrum and pelvis
Hinge Joint Convex surface of one bone fits into concave surface of another bone. Resembles the hinge of a door. Examples: – Joints of the phalanges – Elbow
Pivot Joint Cylindrical surface of one bone rotates in the ring formed between another bone and a ligament. Permits rotation. Example: – Radius and ulna – Cervical vertebrae (neck) and skull.
Saddle Joint BOTH bone surfaces have both a concave and convex surface. Bone fits like a puzzle piece. Allows for a variety of movement. Example: bones between metacarpal (hand) and thumb.
Special Considerations Arthritis: inflammation of one or more joints that results in pain, swelling, stiffness, and limited movement
Special Considerations Arthrocentesis: removal of fluid from the joint capsule to alleviate pressure and swelling.
Special Considerations Arthrodesis: surgical union of a joint; fusing two or more bones together Surgical Union of Lumbar (lower back) Vertebrae.
Meniscus Tears Meniscus are ligaments found in the knee joint. They assist in stabilizing the knee and limiting motion that could cause injury. Most injuries require surgical correction. Becoming more common in young athletes.