3Section 1: Toward a New Constitution ESSENTIAL QUESTION:What were the main elements of the Constitution of 1787?
4Section 1: Toward a New Constitution electoral collegesovereigntyFederalistsAntifederalistselectorateconstitutionalismseparation of powerschecks and balancesfederalismWhat words do I need to know?conservativeinfrastructurerepublicproportional representationGreat CompromiseThree-Fifths Compromise
5Toward a New Constitution Articles of Confederation: rules that governed United States after the Revolutionary WarWeaknesses of the Articles:congress could not pay soldiersstates could not be forced to paytrade between states not regulatedtrade with other countries not controlledGeorge Washington and other leaders agreed to gather to discuss the problems
6The Constitutional Convention 1787: Constitutional Convention met in PhiladelphiaFifty-five representatives attendedGeorge Washington presided over the conventionMost members well-educated and conservativeDelegates knew problems of the weak national government and sought solution
7A Republican Form of Government Delegates studied many types of governmentrepublic: a form of government in which power resides with the citizens who elect representatives to make lawsJames Madison described a government in which a large number of people voted for the representatives
8Organizing Government Large states and small states had different interestsVirginia Plan:strong national governmentthree branches (legislative, judicial, executive)legislative branch (House of Representatives and Senate) elected by proportional representation (large states get more votes)Small states did not like Virginia Plan because they could be dominated by large statesNew Jersey Plan: gave more power to small states, but had a weak national government
9The Great CompromiseEqual Representation: each state would have equal votes in Congress – favored by small statesGreat Compromise, or Connecticut Compromise: House of Representative would have “proportional representation” and Senate “equal representation”
10Compromises on Slavery Slaves were a large part of population in the SouthDebate as to whether to count slaves in “proportional representation” of House of RepresentativesThree-Fifths Compromise: States were allowed to count 3 of every 5 slaves in their census for purposes of representationAgreed to stop importing slaves after 1808
11Compromise on the Presidency Should citizens or Congress elect the President?Decided on electoral college system:Each state’s legislature allowed to have as many “electors” as they had members of CongressState representatives voted for the electors who would vote for President and Vice-President
12Ratification ratification: to approve or make valid September 17, 1787: Constitution approvedFederalists: people who wanted a strong national governmentAntifederalists: wanted states to have more power than national governmentBy 1791, ten amendments approved – known as The Bill of Rights – to protect citizens’ rightsDelaware was first state to ratify; Georgia was the fourth state to ratifyJune 1788 – Constitution ratified by 9 states and becomes the framework for US government
13Principles of the U.S. Government Sovereignty: supreme power of government rests with the peopleelectorate (voters) choose leaders to make laws and run the countryUS is not a “democracy” but a representative democracy or republicConstitutionalism: all representatives are bound by the rules of the Constitutionlawmakers cannot just make up laws as they see fitFederalism: national government and state governments share power and authorityClick to return to Table of Contents.
14Section 2: The Legislative Branch of Government ESSENTIAL QUESTION:What is the role of the legislative branch of government?
15Section 2: The Legislative Branch of Government What words do I need to know?expressed powersimplied powerselastic clausebillveto
16The Members of Congress First article of the Constitution described the legislative branchCongress is at the head of this branchCongress is “bicameral” or has two bodies (parts): House of Representatives and Senate
17The Senate 100 members – two from each state Qualifications: 30 years oldcitizen of US for nine yearsmust be resident of state representedSenators elected by the people (17th Amendment)six year termone third of senators are up for re-election every two yearsVice President of US is president of the Senate – presides over sessionsPresident Pro Tempore, majority leader, minority leader are other senate leaders
18House of Representatives 435 members – the number of representatives is based on a state’s populationReapportionment happens every 10 yearsGeorgia has 13 representatives based on the 2000 censusQualifications:25 years oldcitizen of US for seven yearsmust be resident of state representedtwo year termSpeaker of the House and majority leader are leaders in the House
19The Powers of Congress expressed powers: written in the Constitution implied powers: derive from the expressed powers, but not written specificallyelastic clause: Article 1, Section 8 stretches the power of Congress to include implied powersHouse may impeach, but Senate holds impeachment trialsHouse must start revenue bills, but Senate must ratify treaties and confirm presidential appointments
20How Congress Operates Committees used to organize work of Congress standing committee: monitor federal agenciesselect committee: deal with specific issues and can be formed at any timeconference committee: works out compromises between the House and Senatejoint committee: members from House and Senate to deal with a national issueCongressmen sit on several committeessubcommittee: part of a larger committee assigned to a particular taskCommittees do their work through hearings and investigations
21How Laws are Made bill: a proposed law Bills must be introduced by a sponsor (Congressman) who will work to get the bill voted into lawSubcommittees and Committees will discuss and modify the bill before it is voted onThe House and Senate must agree on the bill before it can go to the president to sign or vetoIf the president signs the bill, it becomes law; if it’s vetoed, it can only become a law if two-thirds of vote of each house of CongressNote: if the president fails to sign or veto within 10 days, the bill becomes lawClick to return to Table of Contents.
22Section 3: The Executive Branch of Government ESSENTIAL QUESTIONWhat is the role of the executive branch of government?
23The Executive Branch of Government The president has enough power to do the job, but the Constitution keeps him from having too much powerFounding fathers did not want another kingIn the beginning, the Electoral College had the job of choosing the president
24The Electoral Collegeelectors: members of the Electoral College chosen from each stateElectors vote for the president; citizens vote for electors, not directly for the president538 electors: number matches the number of senators and representatives from each stateThe candidate with the most votes in a state gets all the electorsElectors are not legally bound to vote for the candidate chosen by the state’s citizensElectors meet in their state’s capitol; votes sent to the president of the SentateInauguration Day is January 20 following the election in November
25Parts of the Executive Branch President & Vice President Qualifications35 years oldnatural-born citizenresident of US for 14 yearslimited to two consecutive terms (22nd Amendment)Vice president takes over if president dies, resigns, or is removed from officeSpeaker of the House and other leaders in line to take over if vice president cannot take overExecutive bureaucracy: Office of the President, Cabinet, independent agencies, regulatory commissions, government corporations
26Executive Office of the President Leaders serve the president and can be fired at any timeIncludes:Office of Management & BudgetNational Security CouncilCouncil of Economic Advisors
27The Cabinet Members advise the president Serve as heads of the executive departmentsMembers appointed by the president and approved by the SenateCurrently 15 members
28Independent AgenciesServe public interest and keep government running smoothlyEPA: Environmental Protection Agency – example of independent agency, supervises efforts to clean air and waterGSA: General Services Administration – oversees spending by the government
29Federal Regulatory Commissions Have power to make rules and punish violatorsLeaders appointed by the presidentExamples:FCC: Federal Communications CommissionSEC: Securities & Exchange CommissionFDA: Food & Drug Administration
30Government Corporations Established to provide products or services for the American peopleExamples:FDIC: Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation – insures bank deposits and protects banking customersUSPS: United States Postal ServiceClick to return to Table of Contents.
31Section 4: The Judicial Branch of Government ESSENTIAL QUESTIONWhat is the role of the judicial branch of government?
32Section 4: The Judicial Branch of Government What words do I need to know?judicial review
33Judicial Branch of Government Supreme CourtLower federal courts a part of this branchDecide the meaning and interpretation of the Constitution and lawsProtects citizens from mistreatment by other branches of government
34The Supreme Court Highest court in USA Chief justice plus eight associate justicesDecides cases involving foreign countries or between statesReviews decisions of lower courtsjudicial review: ability to set aside actions of the legislative or judicial branchChief justice presides over impeachments
35Other Federal CourtsCongress established federal circuit court districtsGeorgia has three district court regionsUS Court of Appeals for 11th Circuit is in AtlantaBankruptcy courts are a part of this system
36Special Courts Courts for special purposes Examples: Tax Court US Court of Appeals for Armed ForcesUS Court of International TradeUS Court of Federal Claims
37The System of Checks and Balances Constitution keeps the branches of government equally importantSometimes the branches of government do not get along well – conflicts can arise if one branch tries to find a way around anotherClick to return to Table of Contents.