2Section 1: Creating A New Government Essential QuestionWhat was Georgia’s role in the Constitutional Convention?
3Constitutional Convention of 1787 William Few and Abraham Baldwin represented Georgia at the Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia; George Washington presidedU.S. Constitution established three governmental branches: Executive, Legislative, and JudicialSenate and House of Representatives established; only three-fifths of slave population would count toward representation
5- In May of 1787, delegates from each state except Rhode Island got together again to draft the Constitution.- GA sent 4 delegates: William Pierce, William Houstoun, William Few, and Abraham Baldwin.- Few and Baldwin had the greatest influence and impact as they were the only 2 to stick around the Constitutional Convention to sign the final draft of the Constitution of America.
6GA Supported the Constitution b/c… The Arts of Confederation failed to create an effective national government for the new nation.Georgia needed the protection that a strong national government could provide against the aggressive Indian population.They liked the Bill of Rights idea and the compromises in the constitution b/c individual liberties would be protected, and the national government would not be too strong.Also, Spain was a potential threat, b/c they controlled East and West Florida b/c of the Treaty of Paris of 1783.
7U.S. Constitution Ratified in 1788 Georgia was fourth state to ratify (approve) the new ConstitutionConstitution could be amended (changed); first 10 amendments became Bill of RightsGeorge Washington became the first President
8A fundamental plan of operation for a government Define Constitution?A fundamental plan of operation for a governmentHighest level of law telling what government can and can’t do.Sets up different branches of governmentIncludes important rights and liberties of the peopleon.com/index.cfm?guidAssetId = a-9fd b f38f5
9Postwar GeorgiaEconomy in ruin; government provided food basics as farmers tried to reestablish their farmsCapital moved to AugustaGeorgia delegates met in 1788 and 1789; adopted state constitution similar to national government, with three branchesGeneral Assembly had two houses, Senate and House of Representatives; appointed governor and judges; controlled spending decisionsClick to return to Table of Contents
10Toward a New Constitution Articles of Confederation: rules that governed United States after the Revolutionary WarWeaknesses of the Articles:congress could not pay soldiersstates could not be forced to paytrade between states not regulatedtrade with other countries not controlledGeorge Washington and other leaders agreed to gather to discuss the problems
11The Constitutional Convention 1787: Constitutional Convention met in PhiladelphiaFifty-five representatives attendedGeorge Washington presided over the conventionMost members well-educated and conservativeDelegates knew problems of the weak national government and sought solutionAssetId=5ef48da5-627b-44e0-acfb-dc30a
12A Republican Form of Government Delegates studied many types of governmentrepublic: a form of government in which power resides with the citizens who elect representatives to make lawsJames Madison described a government in which a large number of people voted for the representatives
13Organizing Government Large states and small states had different interestsVirginia Plan:strong national governmentthree branches (legislative, judicial, executive)legislative branch (House of Representatives and Senate) elected by proportional representation (large states get more votes)Small states did not like Virginia Plan because they could be dominated by large statesNew Jersey Plan: gave more power to small states, but had a weak national government; number of representatives would be the same for each state.
14The Great CompromiseGreat Compromise, or Connecticut Compromise: House of Representative would have “proportional representation” and Senate “equal representation”2 Houses would make up Congress aka the Legislative Branch, not 1:The House of Reps – States would be represented according to population.The Senate – Each state would have 2 senators, regardless of state population.
15Compromises on Slavery Slaves were a large part of population in the SouthDebate as to whether to count slaves in “proportional representation” of House of RepresentativesThree-Fifths Compromise: States were allowed to count 3 of every 5 slaves in their census for purposes of representationAgreed to stop importing slaves after 1808
16Compromise on the Presidency Should citizens or Congress elect the President?Decided on electoral college system:Each state’s legislature allowed to have as many “electors” as they had members of CongressState representatives voted for the electors who would vote for President and Vice-President
17Ratification ratification: to approve or make valid September 17, 1787: Constitution approvedFederalists: people who wanted a strong national governmentAntifederalists: wanted states to have more power than national governmentBy 1791, ten amendments approved – known as The Bill of Rights – to protect citizens’ rightsDelaware was first state to ratify; Georgia was the fourth state to ratifyJune 1788 – Constitution ratified by 9 states and becomes the framework for US government
18Principles of the U.S. Government Sovereignty: supreme power of government rests with the peopleelectorate (voters) choose leaders to make laws and run the countryUS is not a “democracy” but a representative democracy or republicConstitutionalism: all representatives are bound by the rules of the Constitutionlawmakers cannot just make up laws as they see fitFederalism: national government and state governments share power and authorityc1eb504/The-Bill-of-Rights-Hand-GameClick to return to Table of Contents.