Presentation on theme: "Constitution and Bill of Rights"— Presentation transcript:
1Constitution and Bill of Rights On May 25, 1787 (Constitutional Convention starts), 55 delegates representing 12 of the 13 states met in Philadelphia, with Rhode Island not participating.A.O.C not worth savingCharacteristics of Delegates at Constitutional Convention:All menAll whiteMostly wealthyMostly older (42 or older)Mostly well-educated businessmen
2Constitution and Bill of Rights ISSUES to be determined at Convention:Representation in governmentSlaveryEconomicsThe public knew what was going on, but the delegates kept the details quiet. (James Madison’s notebook)GEORGE WASHINGTON CHOSEN TO LEAD THE CONSTITUTIONAL CONVENTION
3Constitution and Bill of Rights VIRGINIA PLANNEW JERSEY PLANGREATCOMPROMISEAKA CONNECTICUT COMPROMISETWO HOUSE LEGISLATURE:HOUSE – BASED ON POPULATIONSENATE – EQUAL REPRESENTATIONPRESIDENT & COURT SYSTEMWILLIAM PATERSONONE HOUSE CONGRESSEACH STATE HAS EQUAL REPRESENTATION IN CONGRESSPROMOTED STATE’S RIGHTSEQUAL VOTES AMONG THE ALL THE STATESJAMES MADISONPRESIDENT, COURTS,AND 2 HOUSE CONGRESSREPRESENTATION BASED ON POPULATIONLARGE STATES GET MORE VOTES- FAVORED BY LARGE STATES
4Constitution and Bill of Rights 3/5 COMPROMISECOMPROMISE: Every 5 enslaved persons would count as three free persons. (or 3/5 of a whole person)
5Constitution and Bill of Rights The Commerce and Slave Trade CompromiseSouthern states agreed that Congress could regulate trade between the states, as well as with other countriesNorthern states agreed that Congress could NOT tax exports, nor could it interfere with the slave trade before 1808.
6Constitution and Bill of Rights The Electoral College Compromiseaddressed how the President would be chosen.Group of people named Electors select the president and vice president
7Constitution and Bill of Rights After 4 main compromises and several other debates, a committee was chosen to write the plan of governmentVirginian Gouverneur Morris wrote the majority of the document we call the Constitution (even though James Madison is considered the “Father of the Constitution”The delegates signed the Constitution on September 17, 1787.They decided that the Constitution would become law once 9 of the 13 states had ratified, or agreed to it.They didn’t realize the process would be so long and difficult.
8Opening Activity (Put in with your notes) 1. How did the Great Compromise appease both the large states and small states?2. What are some common characteristics of the delegates at the Constitutional Convention?3. How do we know what happened at the Constitutional Convention if they did not allow the public to attend?4. When did the delegates sign the Constitution?5. What were the three main issues that needed to be resolved at the beginning of the Constitutional Convention?
9The Federalist (Federalist Papers) Constitution would create FEDERALISM, government in which power is divided between the federal (national) government and states.Federalist Papers – 85 essays written by Alexander Hamilton, James Madison, and John Jay. (Essay #10 – Federalism)#84 – Federalists agree a Bill of Rights need to be added – BUT only after states approve constitution
12ConstitutionOn June 21, 1788 New Hampshire became the 9th state to ratify the Constitution, and made it law. The last, Rhode Island ratified it in 1790, and we became the United States of America. (N.C. in 1789 was 12th)Constitution became the basic law of the United States and the highest authority of the nation“preserve, protect and defend, the Constitution of the United States.”
13Sections of the Constitution Preamblestates the Constitution’s purposeThe people of the United States have the right and power to govern themselves.The preamble lists 6 goals for the United States government. They are:To form a more perfect unionTo establish justiceto insure domestic tranquilityto provide for the common defenseto promote the general welfareto secure the blessings of liberty to ourselves and our posterity
14Sections of the Constitution After the preamble, the Constitution is broken into 7 parts:Article 1 – Outlines lawmaking powers of legislative branch (House and Senate)Article 2 - defines and describes the powers and limits of the President and the executive branchArticle 3 - defines and describes the powers of the Supreme Court and other federal courts, meaning the judicial branch of our government
15Sections of the Constitution Article IV - describes and defines how the states and federal government must respect the laws and rulings of each anotherArticle V - describe the process for changing, or amending, the ConstitutionArticle VI - discusses debts and treaties of the states, and establishes “the supremacy clause”, defining the Constitution and federal laws as supreme when in conflict with those of the states.Article VII - defines how and when the Constitution will be approved and take effect.