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Introduction Chapter 1 © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution.

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Presentation on theme: "Introduction Chapter 1 © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution."— Presentation transcript:

1 Introduction Chapter 1 © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.

2 1 - 2 Chapter Outline Discuss the distinctive features of a life-span perspective on development Identify the most important processes, periods, and issues in development Describe the main theories of human development Explain how research on life-span development is conducted © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.

3 1 - 3 The Life-Span Perspective The importance of studying life-span development Characteristics of the life-span perspective Some contemporary concerns © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.

4 1 - 4 The Importance of Studying Life-span Development Prepares us to take responsibility for children Gives us insight about our own lives Gives us knowledge about what our lives will be like as we age © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.

5 1 - 5 © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part. Pattern of change that begins at conception and continues through the life span Development Involves growth, maintenance, and regulation Is constructed through biological, sociocultural, and individual factors working together Life-span perspective

6 1 - 6 Characteristics of the Life-Span Perspective Development: – Is contextual – Is lifelong – Is multidimensional – Is multidirectional – Is plastic – Is multidisciplinary © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.

7 1 - 7 Types of Contextual Influences Normative age-graded influences: Similar for individuals in a particular age group Normative history-graded influences: Common to people of a particular generation because of historical circumstances Nonnormative life events: Unusual occurrences that have a major impact on an individual’s life © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.

8 1 - 8 The Life-Span Perspective Contemporary concerns – Health and well-being – Parenting and education – Sociocultural contexts and diversity Culture: Behavior patterns, beliefs, and all other products of a group that are passed on from generation to generation © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.

9 1 - 9 The Life-Span Perspective Cross-cultural studies: Comparison of one culture with one or more other cultures Ethnicity: Based on cultural heritage, nationality characteristics, race, religion, and language Socioeconomic status: Grouping of people with similar occupational, educational, and economic characteristics Gender: Characteristics of people as males or females – Social policy: National government’s course of action designed to promote the welfare of its citizens © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.

10 The Nature of Development Biological, cognitive, and socioemotional processes Periods of development The significance of age Developmental issues © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.

11 Biological, Cognitive, and Socioemotional Processes © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part. Changes in an individual’s physical nature Biological processes Changes in an individual’s thought, intelligence, and language Cognitive processes Changes in an individual’s relationships with other people, emotions, and personality Socioemotional processes

12 Periods of Development Four ages – First age - Childhood and adolescence – Second age - Prime adulthood, ages 20 through 59 – Third age - Approximately 60 to 79 years of age – Fourth age - Approximately 80 years and older Development in one period is connected to development in another period © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.

13 Figure Processes and Periods of Development © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.

14 Significance of Age A full evaluation of age requires consideration of chronological, biological, psychological, and social age – Chronological age Number of years that have elapsed since birth – Biological age Age in terms of biological health © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.

15 Significance of Age – Psychological age An individual’s adaptive capacities compared with those of other individuals of the same chronological age – Social age Connectedness with others and the social roles individuals adopt © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.

16 Developmental Issues Nature-nurture issue: Debate about whether development is primarily influenced by nature or nurture – Nature - Organism’s biological inheritance – Nurture - Environmental experiences © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.

17 Developmental Issues Stability-change issue – Debate about: Whether we become older renditions of our early experience Whether we develop into someone different from who we were at an earlier point in development Continuity-discontinuity issue: Debate about the extent to which development involves – Gradual, cumulative change or distinct stages © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.

18 Theories of Development Scientific method: An approach that can be used to obtain accurate information – Conceptualize the problem – Collect data – Draw conclusions – Revise research conclusions and theory © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.

19 Theories of Development Theory: An interrelated, coherent set of ideas that helps to explain phenomena and facilitate predictions Hypotheses: Specific assumptions and predictions that can be tested to determine their accuracy © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.

20 Psychoanalytic Theories Describe development as primarily unconscious and heavily colored by emotion © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.

21 Theories of Development Psychoanalytic theories Cognitive theories Behavioral and social cognitive theories Ethological theory Ecological theory An eclectic theoretical orientation © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.

22 Figure Freudian Stages © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.

23 Psychoanalytic Theories Erikson’s psychosocial theory – Eight stages of development Trust versus mistrust Autonomy versus shame and doubt Initiative versus guilt Industry versus inferiority Identity versus identity confusion Intimacy versus isolation Generativity versus stagnation Integrity versus despair © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.

24 Psychoanalytic Theories Evaluation – Emphasis on: A developmental framework Family relationships Unconscious aspects of the mind Criticisms Lack of scientific support Too much emphasis on sexual underpinnings An image of people that is too negative © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.

25 Figure Piaget’s Four Stages of Cognitive Development © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.

26 Cognitive Theories Vygotsky’s theory: Emphasizes how culture and social interaction guide cognitive development Information-processing theory: Emphasizes that individuals: – Manipulate information – Monitor it – Strategize about it © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.

27 Cognitive Theories Evaluation – Positive view of development – Emphasis on the active construction of understanding – Criticisms Skepticism about the pureness of Piaget’s stages Little attention to individual variations © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.

28 Behavioral and Social Cognitive Theories Skinner’s operant conditioning – Development consists of the pattern of behavioral changes that are brought about by rewards and punishments Bandura’s social cognitive theory – Emphasizes behavior, environment, and cognition as the key factors in development © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.

29 Behavioral and Social Cognitive Theories Evaluation – Emphasis on scientific research and environmental determinants of behavior – Criticisms Little emphasis on cognition in Skinner’s view Inadequate attention paid to developmental changes © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.

30 Ethological Theory Ethology: Stresses that behavior is strongly influenced by biology, is tied to evolution, and is characterized by critical or sensitive periods Konrad Lorenz helped bring ethology to prominence John Bowlby - Attachment to a caregiver over the first year of life has important consequences throughout the life span © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.

31 Figure Bronfenbrenner’s Ecological Theory of Development © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.

32 Five Environmental Systems Bronfenbrenner’s Model Microsystem - Setting in which the individual lives Mesosystem - Relations between microsystems or connections between contexts Exosystem - Links between a social setting in which the individual does not have an active role and the individual’s immediate context © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.

33 Five Environmental Systems Bronfenbrenner’s Model Macrosystem - Culture in which individuals live Chronosystem - Patterning of environmental events and transitions over the life course and sociohistorical circumstances © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.

34 Eclectic Theoretical Orientation Does not follow any one theoretical approach – Selects from each theory whatever is considered the best in it © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.

35 Research in Life-Span Development Methods for collecting data Research designs Time span of research Conducting ethical research Minimizing bias © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.

36 Methods for Collecting Data Observation – Laboratory: Controlled setting in which many of the complex factors of the real world are removed – Naturalistic observation: Studies that involve observing behavior in real-world settings Survey and interview © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.

37 Methods for Collecting Data Standardized test: Uniform procedures for administration and scoring Case study: In-depth look at a single individual Physiological measures © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.

38 Research Designs Descriptive research: Designed to observe and record behavior Correlational research: Describe the strength of the relationship between two or more events or characteristics – Correlation coefficient: A number based on statistical analysis that is used to describe the degree of association between two variables – Ranges from to © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.

39 Research Designs Experimental research – Experiment: One or more of the factors are manipulated while all other factors are held constant – Independent and dependent variables – Experimental and control groups © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.

40 Time Span of Research Cross-sectional approach: Individuals of different ages are compared at one time Longitudinal approach: Same individuals are studied over a period of time, usually several years or more Cohort effects: Due to a person’s time of birth, era, or generation rather than the person’s actual age © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.

41 Conducting Ethical Research Informed consent Confidentiality Debriefing Deception © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.

42 Minimizing Bias Gender bias Cultural and ethnic bias – Ethnic gloss: Using an ethnic label in a superficial way that portrays an ethnic group as being more homogeneous than it really is © 2013 by McGraw-Hill Education. This is proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or posted on a website, in whole or part.


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