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Sigelman/Rider, Life-Span Human Development, 5 th Ed. with InfoTrac ® College Edition Your Required Technology Materials Professor: Talley Course: Psych.

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Presentation on theme: "Sigelman/Rider, Life-Span Human Development, 5 th Ed. with InfoTrac ® College Edition Your Required Technology Materials Professor: Talley Course: Psych."— Presentation transcript:

1 Sigelman/Rider, Life-Span Human Development, 5 th Ed. with InfoTrac ® College Edition Your Required Technology Materials Professor: Talley Course: Psych 110

2 Sigelman/Rider, Life-Span Human Development, 5 th Ed. with WebTutor™ on WebCT Professor: Course/Section: Professor: Talley Course: Psych 110 Your Required Technology Materials

3 Technology Resources to help you succeed in this course Professor: Course/Section: Your FREE companion website offers you chapter-specific quizzing, flashcards, games, etc. to help you master the course content. Visit the companion website at

4 Chapter 1 Understanding Life-Span Human Development

5 What is Development? Systematic changes and continuities –In the individual –Between conception and death “Womb to Tomb” Three broad domains –Physical, Cognitive, Psychosocial

6 Other Developmental Definitions Growth: Physical changes that occur from birth to maturity Aging: Positive and negative changes in the mature organism Maturation: The biological unfolding of the individual genetic plan Learning: Relatively permanent changes due to environmental experiences

7 Age Grades, Age Norms, and the Social Clock Age Grade: Socially defined age groups –Statuses, roles, privileges, responsibilities –Adults can vote, children can’t Age Norms: Behavioral expectations by age –Children attend school Social Clock: When things should be done –Early adulthood – time for 1 st marriages “Off time” experiences are more difficult

8 Life-Span Phases in Historical Context Only two phases: Childhood & Adulthood 1600: Children viewed as miniature adults Modern view: innocence, need protection Average life expectancy in 1900: 49 yrs –Females} White:80 yrs, Black:75 yrs –Males} White:75 yrs, Black 68 yrs –Increasing population of age 65+

9 Framing the Nature/Nurture Issue Nature: heredity –Maturational processes guided by genes –Biologically based predispositions –Biological unfolding of genes Nurture: environment –Learning: experiences cause changes is thoughts, feelings, and behaviors Interactionist view: nature & nurture interact

10 Figure 1.1

11 Goals of Studying Life- Span Development Description –Normal development, individual differences Explanation –Typical and individually different development Optimization –Positive development, enhancing human capacities –Prevention and overcoming difficulties

12 Methods of Studying Life- Span Development Historical –Baby Biographies: Charles Darwin –Questionnaires: G. Stanley Hall Key Assumptions of Modern Life-Span Perspectives –Lifelong, multidirectional process –Gain and loss and lifelong plasticity –Historical/cultural contexts, multiple influences –Multi-disciplinary studies

13 Conducting Developmental Research Self-reports: interview, questionnaires, tests Behavioral Observations –Naturalistic Advantage: natural setting Disadvantage: conditions not controlled –Structured (Lab) Disadvantage: cannot generalize to natural settings Advantage: conditions controlled

14 Figure 1.2

15 The Experimental Method Three Critical Features –1. Manipulation of independent variable –2. Random assignment of individuals to treatment conditions –3. Experimental control Quasi-Experiment: No random assignment

16 The Correlational Method Determine if 2 or more variables are related Correlation: A measure of the relationship –Can range from +1.0 to –1.0 –Positive: variables move in same direction –Negative: variables move in opposite dir. No relationship if correlation is 0 Cannot establish a causal relationship

17 Figure 1.3

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19 Developmental Research Designs Cross-Sectional Designs –+1 cohorts or age-groups studied –1 time of testing –Studying age differences at any one time Longitudinal Designs –1 cohort –+1 time of testing –Study changes across time in one cohort

20 Figure 1.4

21 Age, Cohort, and Time of Measurement Effects Age effects: Changes which occur due to age Cohort Effects: Born in one historical context –Changes due to differences in society –Disadvantage of cross-sectional design Time of measurement effects: Historical –Take place at time of data collection –Disadvantage of longitudinal design

22 Sequential Designs A combination of cross-sectional and longitudinal designs Advantages of both designs Gives information about –Which age-related trends are age effects? –Which age-related trends are truly cohort effects? –Which age-related trends are a result of historical events?

23 Figure 1.6

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25 Protecting the Rights of Participants Risk to benefit balance of the research Researcher responsibilities –Informed consent –Debriefing –Protection from harm –Confidentiality

26 The Ecology of Human Development Bronfenbrenner: Bioecological Model –How nature and nurture interact to produce development The biological, psychological, person Four environmental systems –Microsystem: family –Mesosystem: school –Exosystem: society –Macrosystem: culture


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