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Slide 1 © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 1 A Topical Approach to LIFE-SPAN DEVELOPMENT Chapter One: Introduction John W. Santrock.

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Presentation on theme: "Slide 1 © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 1 A Topical Approach to LIFE-SPAN DEVELOPMENT Chapter One: Introduction John W. Santrock."— Presentation transcript:

1 Slide 1 © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 1 A Topical Approach to LIFE-SPAN DEVELOPMENT Chapter One: Introduction John W. Santrock

2 Slide 2 © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 2 The Life-Span Perspective The Importance of Studying Life-Span Development The Historical Perspective Characteristics of the Life-Span Perspective Development — pattern of change that begins at conception and continues through life span

3 Slide 3 © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 3 Importance of Studying Life-Span Development Experiences influence development –Maximum human life span unchanged –Life expectancy — average number of years a person is expected to live when born in a particular year has changed –Developmental change occurs during adulthood as well as childhood

4 Slide 4 © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 4 Importance of Studying Life-Span Development Characteristics of the Life-Span Perspective –Lifelong –Multidimensional –Multidirectional –Plastic –Multidisciplinary –Contextual –Growth –Maintenance –Regulation of loss

5 Slide 5 © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 5 Importance of Studying Life-Span Development Development is contextual –Normative age-graded influences Shared by a particular age group –Normative history-graded influences Shared by a specific generation –Nonnormative life events Unique to the individual

6 Slide 6 © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 6 Importance of Studying Life-Span Development Some contemporary concerns: –Health and well-being –Parenting and education Sociocultural contexts and diversity –Culture –Ethnicity –Socioeconomic status –Gender

7 Slide 7 © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 7 Importance of Studying Life-Span Development Social policy — laws, regulations, and government programs that influence citizens’ welfare –U.S. family policies overwhelmingly treatment oriented

8 Slide 8 © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 8 The Aging of America Fig. 1.5

9 Slide 9 © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 9 Processes in Development Fig. 1.6

10 Slide 10 © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 10 Nature of Development Development period — time frame in one’s life characterized by certain events –Interplay of biological, cognitive, and sociological processes –Each period has its own stresses, ups and downs, and concerns –Variations in capabilities of same age individuals occur in all periods of development

11 Slide 11 © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 11 Nature of Development Periods of development Prenatal Period Infancy Early childhood Middle and late childhood Adolescence Early adulthood Middle adulthood Late adulthood

12 Slide 12 © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 12 Nature of Development Significance of age –Age and happiness Some studies — no differences for each age group Some found “U-shaped” results — lowest happiness at years of age U.S. research — happiness increases with age

13 Slide 13 © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 13 Nature of Development Conceptions of age –Chronological age — number of years elapsed since person’s birth –Biological age — in terms of biological health –Psychological age — one’s adaptive capacities –Social age — social roles and expectations related to one’s age

14 Slide 14 © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 14 Nature of Development Developmental issues –Nature and nurture Inheritance or environment? –Stability and change Traits and characteristics; capacity for change? –Continuity and discontinuity Gradual or abrupt changes in development?

15 Slide 15 © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 15 Continuity and Discontinuity in Development Fig. 1.9

16 Slide 16 © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 16 Theories of Development Theory — interrelated set of ideas that helps to explain data, make predictions Hypotheses — assertions or predictions, often derived from theories that can be tested

17 Slide 17 © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 17 Theories of Development Psychoanalytic Theories –Development is primarily unconscious, heavy with emotion –Behavior is surface characteristic of development –Analyze symbolic meanings of behavior and deep inner workings of the mind for true meaning of development –Early childhood experiences stressed (ages 1-5)

18 Slide 18 © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 18 Theories of Development Freud’s theory –Id, ego, and superego create personality –Defense mechanisms and repression –Anxiety and defense mechanisms –Five stages of psychosexual development –Criticisms: overemphasized sexual instincts, unconscious is more important today

19 Slide 19 © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 19 Freudian Stages Fig. 1.10

20 Slide 20 © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 20 Theories of Development Erikson’s psychosocial theory –Primary motive for human behavior is social; desire to affiliate with others –Developmental changes throughout life span –Experiences at all ages are important –Criticisms: stages have positive/negative poles, crisis in each stage needs resolution

21 Slide 21 © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 21 Erikson’s Eight Life-Span Stages

22 Slide 22 © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 22 Theories of Development Cognitive Theories –Emphasize conscious thoughts –Three major theories Piaget’s cognitive development Vygotsky’s sociocultural cognitive theory Information processing theory

23 Slide 23 © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 23 Theories of Development Piaget’s cognitive developmental theory –Children actively construct their knowledge –Each of the four stages Age-related Has a distinct way of thinking Has different way of understanding the world Child’s cognition is “qualitatively” different

24 Slide 24 © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 24 Piaget’s Four Stages of Cognitive Development Fig. 1.12

25 Slide 25 © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 25 Theories of Development Vygotsky’s sociocultural cognitive theory –Children actively construct their knowledge –Culture and social interaction guide cognitive development Learning to use inventions of society Learning from social interactions with more skilled adults and peers Interaction creates tools to adapt to culture

26 Slide 26 © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 26 Theories of Development Information-Processing theory –Brain is compared to computer’s hardware –Cognition is viewed as computer software –Individuals acquire increasingly complex information –Thinking: perceive, encode, represent, store, and retrieve information –Good strategies: important to development

27 Slide 27 © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 27 Information-Processing Theory OUTPUT INPUT math history religion culture science literature

28 Slide 28 © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 28 Theories of Development Behavioral and Social Cognitive Theories –Behaviorism — scientific studies can only be based on direct observations and measures –Development is observable behavior Learned from experiences/environment Development does not occur in stages; advocates continuity

29 Slide 29 © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 29 Theories of Development Skinner’s operant conditioning –Consequences, rewards and punishment, shape behavior No emphasis on thoughts, feelings –Development is pattern of behavioral changes Modifying environment produces change Changes determined by consistency experiences, rewards or punishments

30 Slide 30 © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 30 Theories of Development Bandura’s social cognitive theory –Behavior, environment, and cognition are key to development –Behavior is learned through observation and imitating (modeling) –Behavior of others is cognitively evaluated, strategies created for successful learning

31 Slide 31 © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 31 Bandura’s Social Cognitive Model Fig. 1.13

32 Slide 32 © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 32 Theories of Development Ethological Theory –Emphasis on biology and evolution, sensitive periods of development, and careful observations –Lorenz: imprinting Animals’ rapid, innate learning process involving “attachment” Critical period is early in life

33 Slide 33 © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 33 Theories of Development Ethological Theory –Bowlby Used ideas of Lorenz “Attachment” determines development Positive and secure, negative and insecure Sensitive period is in infancy Promotes good social relationships

34 Slide 34 © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 34 Theories of Development Ecological theory –Bronfenbrenner’s view that development influenced by five environmental system Microsystem Mesosystem Exosystem Macrosystem Chronosystem

35 Slide 35 © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 35 Bronfenbrenner’s Ecological Theory Fig. 1.14

36 Slide 36 © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 36 Theories of Development Eclectic theoretical approach –Life-span development is complex –Each theory has contribution to understanding development Selects from best features of each –A mistake to rely on only one theory

37 Slide 37 © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 37 Research in Life-Span Development Methods for Collecting Data –Observation: Laboratory Naturalistic observation –Cultural concerns –Survey and interview Self-report, clear and unbiased questions

38 Slide 38 © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 38 Research in Life-Span Development Methods for Collecting Data –Standardized test –Case study Focus on aspects of individual’s life Unique, cannot be duplicated –Physiological measures Blood tests, MRI

39 Slide 39 © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 39 Research in Life-Span Development Methods for Collecting Data –Descriptive research: Observe and record –Correlational research: Prediction based on strength of relationship Correlation coefficient (+1.00 to -1.00)

40 Slide 40 © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 40 Possible Explanations for Correlational Data Fig. 1.19

41 Slide 41 © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 41 Research in Life-Span Development Methods for Collecting Data –Experimental research Causality and effect Dependent (Y) and independent (X) variables Control and experimental groups Random assignment of subjects Manipulation of independent (X) variable

42 Slide 42 © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 42 Principles of Experimental Research Fig. 1.18

43 Slide 43 © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 43 Research in Life-Span Development Time Span of Research –Cross-sectional approach Compares different age groups at the same time on a variety of dependent variables –Longitudinal approach Studies same group over long period of time –Cohort effects: time of birth, generation, era

44 Slide 44 © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 44 Research in Life-Span Development Research Journals –Learning about journal process is beneficial –Scholarly and academic information published –Articles evaluated before publishing –Some journals more prestigious than others –Organization of article Abstract, introduction, method, results, discussion, references

45 Slide 45 © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 45 Research in Life-Span Development Conducting Ethical Research –APA guidelines address Informed consent, confidentiality Debriefing, deception –Minimizing bias (gender, culture, ethnicity) Ethnic gloss — overgeneralizing about ethnic group(s)

46 Slide 46 © 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 46 The End


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