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Chapter 1 Introduction.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 1 Introduction."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 1 Introduction

2 The Life-Span Perspective
Development the pattern of movement or change that begins at conception and continues through the human life span each of us develops partly like all other individuals partly like some other individuals partly like no other individuals

3 Characteristics of the Life-Span Perspective
Learning about ourselves and others development involves growth, but it also includes decline Traditional approach emphasizes extensive change from birth to adolescence, little or no change in adulthood, and decline in old age Life-span approach emphasizes developmental change throughout adulthood as well as childhood

4 Life Span versus Life Expectancy
Human Life Span Based on the oldest age documented—122 years Maximum life span of humans has not changed since the beginning of recorded history Life Expectancy the average number of years that a person born in a particular year can expect to live Life expectancy increased by 30 years in the 20th century


6 More Characteristics of the Life-Span Perspective
Life-span perspective views development as Lifelong Multidimensional Multidirectional Dynamic systems Butterfly effect Plastic Multidisciplinary What other disciplines contribute to the study of the life-span? Contextual Historical context Cohort – Examples: Wifely duties, 9/11, Great Depression, Bonfire Social construction Socioeconomic context (Socioeconomic status) Cultural context (Culture) Subculture Race vs. Ethnicity Individualistic vs. Collective Examples: Olympics, Korea, Self (Baltes, 1987, 2003; Baltes, Lindenberger, & Staudinger, 2006)

7 Contemporary Concerns in Life-Span Development
Health and Well-Being   Parenting and Education   Sociocultural Contexts and Diversity   cross-cultural studies ethnicity socioeconomic status (SES) gender

8 Social Policy   A government’s course of action designed to promote the welfare of its citizens values economics/poverty politics children the elderly

9 The Nature of Development
Biological processes produce changes in an individual’s physical nature Cognitive processes refer to changes in the individual’s thought, intelligence, and language Socioemotional processes involve changes in the individual’s relationships with other people, changes in emotions, and changes in personality

10 Connecting Biological, Cognitive, and Socioemotional Processes
Inextricably intertwined Two emerging fields Developmental cognitive neuroscience Examples: Alzheimer’s disease, ADHD Developmental social neuroscience Examples: Austism, failure to thrive Bidirectional

11 Periods of Development
Developmental period refers to a time frame in a person’s life that is characterized by certain features prenatal period -- conception to birth infancy -- birth to 18 or 24 months early childhood -- end of infancy to age 5 or 6 middle and late childhood -- 6 to 11 years of age

12 Periods of Development
adolescence -- transition from childhood to early adulthood, approximately 10 to 12 to 18 to 22 years of age early adulthood -- late teens or early twenties through the thirties middle adulthood -- approximately 40 to about 60 years of age late adulthood -- sixties or seventies and lasts until death

13 Periods of Development
Life-span developmentalists who focus on adult development and aging increasingly describe life-span development in terms of four “ages” first age: childhood and adolescence second age: prime adulthood, 20s - 50s third age: approximately 60 to 79 years fourth age: approximately 80 years and older (Baltes, 2006; Willis & Schaie, 2006)

14 Conceptions of Age Chronological age -- number of years since birth
Biological age -- age in terms of biological health Psychological age -- individual’s adaptive capacities Social age -- society’s age expectations

15 Nature and Nurture The nature-nurture issue concerns the extent to which development is influenced by nature and by nurture Nature refers to an organism’s biological inheritance Nurture to its environmental experiences Which has the greatest influence, and how do the two interact?

16 Stability and Change The stability-change issue involves the degree to which early traits and characteristics persist through life or change Stability is the result of heredity and possibly early experiences in life Plasticity, the potential for change, exists throughout the life span To what degree do early traits and characteristics persist through life, or how much do they change?

17 Continuity and Discontinuity
The continuity-discontinuity issue focuses on the degree to which development involves either gradual, cumulative change or distinct stages Continuity -- gradual, cumulative change; quantitative Discontinuity -- distinct stages; qualitative Is change in development gradual or abrupt?

18 Evaluating the Developmental Issues
Most life-span developmentalists acknowledge that development is not all nature or all nurture, not all stability or all change, and not all continuity or all discontinuity Nature and nurture, stability and change, continuity and discontinuity characterize development throughout the human life span (Gottlieb, 2007; Rutter, 2007)

19 Theories of Development
The scientific method Tool to understand or answer questions about development Five-step process: Conceptualize a process or problem to be studied Hypothesis Collect research information (data) Analyze data Draw conclusions

20 Conceptualizing the Problem
Draw on theories A theory is an interrelated, coherent set of ideas that helps to explain phenomena and make predictions Develop hypotheses Hypotheses are specific assertions and predictions that can be tested

21 Theories of Development
Psychoanalytic Theory Psychosocial Theory Cognitive Theory Behavioral and Social Theory Ethological Theory Ecological Theory Eclectic Theoretical Orientation

22 Psychoanalytic Theory
Primarily unconscious (beyond awareness) and heavily colored by emotion Understanding of development requires analyzing the symbolic meanings of behavior and the deep inner workings of the mind

23 Psychoanalytic Theory
Sigmund Freud’s Theory behavior and problems are the result of experiences early in life (mainly first 5 years) adult personality -- resolution of conflicts between sources of pleasure at each stage and the demands of reality Erik Erikson’s Psychosocial Theory   primary motivation for human behavior is social and reflects a desire to affiliate with other people developmental change occurs throughout the life span

24 Freud’s Psychosexual Stages

25 Erikson’s Psychosocial Stages

26 Cognitive Theories Emphasis on conscious thoughts
Three important cognitive theories Piaget’s cognitive developmental theory Vygotsky’s sociocultural cognitive theory Information-processing theory

27 Piaget’s Cognitive Developmental Theory
Children go through four stages of cognitive development Processes underlie this cognitive construction of the world organization adaptation Each stage is age-related and consists of a distinct way of thinking -- a qualitatively different way of understanding

28 Piaget’s Cognitive Stages

29 Vygotsky’s Sociocultural Cognitive Theory
Emphasizes how culture and social interaction guide cognitive development Cognitive development involves learning to use the inventions of society, such as language, mathematical systems, and memory strategies

30 The Information-Processing Theory
Emphasis on ways that individuals manipulate information, monitor it, and strategize about it Individuals develop a gradually increasing capacity for processing information, which allows them to acquire increasingly complex knowledge and skills (Munakata, 2006; Reed, 2007)

31 Behavioral and Social Cognitive Theories
Behaviorism -- we can study scientifically only what can be directly observed and measured Versions of behaviorism Pavlov’s classical conditioning Examples: Squeaky door, Ice cream man, “Take out a sheet of paper…”

32 Behavioral and Social Cognitive Theories
Skinner’s Operant Conditioning   consequences of a behavior produce changes in the probability of the behavior’s occurrence rewards and punishments shape development Examples: Snickers, traffic Bandura’s Social Cognitive Theory holds that behavior, environment, and cognition are the key factors in development observational learning (also called imitation or modeling) people cognitively represent the behavior of others and then sometimes adopt this behavior themselves Examples: Child at Aggie game, teen’s attire


34 Ethological Theory Ethology stresses Noted ethologists
Behavior is strongly influenced by biology It is tied to evolution Characterized by critical or sensitive periods Noted ethologists Konrad Lorenz John Bowlby

35 Ecological Theory Emphasis on environmental factors
Noted ecological theories Bronfenbrenner’s ecological theory theory identifies five environmental systems: microsystem, mesosystem, exosystem, macrosystem, and chronosystem


37 An Eclectic Theoretical Orientation
No single theory described in this chapter can explain entirely the rich complexity of life-span development, but each has contributed to our understanding of development

38 Research in Life-Span Development
Application of scientific method Methods for collecting data Observation Examples: Bullying, marriage laboratory observation naturalistic observation asking questions -- survey and interview Examples: Internet addiction (1-10%), child diets standardized testing case study Examples: Autism, SIDS physiological measures

39 Research Designs Descriptive research -- observe and record behavior
Correlational research -- describe the strength of the relationship between two or more events or characteristics Positive correlation Examples: Temperament, reporting domestic violence, Gossip/depression/anxiety Negative correlation Examples: Overtime/anxiety/depression, Cohabitation Experiment -- regulated procedure in which one or more factors are manipulated while all other factors are held constant

40 Independent and Dependent Variables
Experiments include two types of changeable factors independent variable manipulated, influential, experimental factor a potential cause dependent variable can change in response to changes in the independent variable resulting effect Examples: DHA, UMP, choline  Intelligence? Violence  Aggression

41 Experimental and Control Groups
Experimental group is a group whose experience is manipulated A control group is a comparison group As much like the experimental group as possible, which is treated in every way like the experimental group except for the manipulated factor (independent variable) Control group serves as a baseline against which the effects of the manipulated condition can be compared

42 Time Span of Research The cross-sectional approach is a research strategy that simultaneously compares individuals of different ages The longitudinal approach is a research strategy in which the same individuals are studied over a period of time, usually several years or more Example: Problem-solving skills A cohort is a group of people who are born at a similar point in history and share similar experiences Cohort effects are due to a person’s time of birth, era, or generation but not to actual age

43 Conducting Ethical Research
Rights of participant Responsibilities of researchers APA’s guidelines address four important issues Informed consent Confidentiality Debriefing Deception Why would we use this technique?

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