2THE “DARK” CONTINENT“Dark Continent” – racist terminology referred to both the peoples of Africa and their alleged ignoranceIn reality, Africa has always had diverse groups of people with their own unique cultures and historiesCivilizationsLanguagesReligionsPossible anecdote: Review of African cultures and civilizations, such as Mansa Musa and Great Zimbabwe.2
3GEOGRAPHY OF AFRICA Continent – not a country Continent is three times larger than EuropeNorthern Africa – desertMid-to-southern Africa – diverse climates and topography
4DAVID LIVINGSTONE (1813-1873) Scottish missionary – lived in central AfricaExplored AfricaNamed Lake Victoria after the British queenConverted many Africans to ChristianityWrote books on Africa which piqued foreign interest1871 – reported “lost”“Found” by Henry Stanley“Dr. Livingstone, I presume?”
5HENRY STANLEY (1841-1904) Welsh-American reporter “Found” Dr. Livingstone in Africa“Dr. Livingstone, I presume?”Explored AfricaCongo RiverLake TanganyikaLake VictoriaWorked with Belgium’s King Leopold II and his African colonization companyInternational African Society
6Scramble for AfricaIn the 1870s the Belgians began to trade with Africans in the Congo.Fearing they would miss out on various raw materials, the other European nations scrambled to establish their presence on the continent.King Leopold
7KARL PETERS (1856-1918) German explorer in Africa Organized and propagandized for Germany’s colonial expansionFounded the Society for German ColonizationAcquired German East Africa (modern-day Tanzania)Convinced Otto von Bismarck to take over German East Africa and increase Germany’s colonies in Africa
8Scramble for Africa Berlin Conference In 1884, to avoid conflict amongst themselves, European leaders met at the Berlin Conference to set up rules for colonizing Africa. No Africans were invited.Berlin Conference
9Scramble for Africa Berlin Conference The European powers agreed that before they could claim territory they would have to set up an outpost. Whoever was the first to build the outpost gained that area of land.Berlin Conference
10CECIL RHODES ( )British businessman and politician in southern AfricaMade a fortune from African diamond minesEstablished South African CompanyLand later became Rhodesia (Zimbabwe)Prime minister of Cape Colony ( )Wanted British control over South AfricaWanted Cape-to-Cairo RailroadArchitect of British imperialism in southern AfricaGreat Britain became leading colonial power in southern Africa
13Southern Africa AFRICA The Boers In the mid-1600s, Dutch farmers known as Boers settled in southern Africa in Cape Colony. The Boers built Cape Town as a supply station.In the 1700s, the Dutch herders and ivory hunters began to move north. The British then acquired Cape Colony in the early 1800s.BoersCape ColonyCape ColonyCapeTown
14Southern Africa The Anglo-Boer War In the late 1800s, the discovery of gold and diamonds in the northern Boer territory set off the Anglo-Boer war.The war was from and involved bitter guerrilla fighting. The British won, but at a great cost.BritishBoers
17Southern Africa The Zulus ShakaZuluIn the early 1800s in southern Africa, an African leader named Shaka conquered and united tribes to form the Zulu nation.ZuluNationCape ColonyCapeTown
18Southern Africa The Zulus The Zulus were skilled and organized fighters. Shaka used his power and fought against European slave traders and ivory hunters.
19Southern Africa The Zulus The Zulus also fought the Boers as they migrated north from Cape Colony.ZuluNationBoersCape ColonyCapeTown
20Southern Africa The Anglo-Zulu War The Zulus came into conflict with the British as well. In 1879 the Zulus wiped out a British force at the battle of Isandlwana.
21Southern Africa The Anglo-Zulu War However, it was not long before the superior weaponry of the British overtook the Zulus at the battle of Rorke’s Drift.
22Southern Africa AFRICA European Territory In 1910, with southern Africa secure, the British established the Republic of South Africa and instituted apartheid.Apartheid – government policy calling for separation of the races.SouthAfricaCape ColonyCapeTown
23Britain’s claims in Africa were second in size only to France, but included heavily populated areas with greater natural resources.British TerritoryBritain controlled Egypt because of its strategic location.
25EUROPEANS IN EGYPT1870s – with the Egyptian government bankrupt, the British and French took over financial control of the countryEgyptian monarchs (technically Ottoman viceroys) ruled as puppet leaders1882 – Egyptian nationalist rebellionFrance withdrew its troopsGreat Britain left in control of EgyptLord Cromer introduced reformsDe facto British protectorateMade official in 1914Independence came in 1922
26BRITISH IN NORTHERN AFRICA SudanArea south of EgyptUnder Anglo-Egyptian controlCotton needed for British textile millsEntente Cordiale (1904)Great Britain controlled SudanFrance controlled MoroccoCape-to-Cairo RailroadIdea of Cecil RhodesWould secure Great Britain’s dominance in AfricaNever completed – sections missing through modern Sudan and Uganda
27Cape-to-Cairo Railway: Crossing over Victoria Falls
28France was very powerful in North Africa, and later spread into West and Central Africa. The territory France controlled was as large as the United States.French Territory
29The newly formed German empire had to fight many battles against African natives to take lands in the southern half of Africa.German TerritoryGermany would lose its colonial territories after its loss in World War I.
30The Italians crossed the Mediterranean and conquered Libya The Italians crossed the Mediterranean and conquered Libya. They then took Somaliland in the horn of Africa, but were beaten badly by the Ethiopians.Italian Territory
31King Leopold and other wealthy Belgians exploited the riches of the Congo, and brutalized the natives. Many Africans were enslaved, beaten, and killed.Belgium Territory
32Although the leaders of the old imperialism, the African claims of the Portuguese and Spanish were minimal.Portuguese TerritorySpanish Territory
33Britain France Germany Italy Belgium Portugal Spain Europeans In AfricaBritainFranceGermanyItalyBelgiumEuropeansIn AfricaBy 1914PortugalSpain
34Liberia and Ethiopia Independent Africans After the slave trade was outlawed, abolitionists in the United States promoted the idea of returning freed slaves to Africa.In the early 1800s, President Monroe helped free slaves settle in Liberia. The former slaves named the capital city Monrovia in his honor.PresidentMonroe
36Liberia and Ethiopia Independent Africans The Ethiopians kept their freedom through a successful military resistance. Emperor Menelik II modernized the army, along with roads, bridges, and schools.When the Italians invaded they were defeated so badly by Menelik that no other Europeans tried to take Ethiopia.
38Effects of Imperialism Positive ResultsNegative Results1. Unified national states created1. Encouraged tribal wars by creating artificial borders2. Improved medical care, sanitation, and nutrition2. Created population explosion famine3. Increased agricultural production3. Produced cash crops needed by Europeans, and not food for Africans4. Improved transportation and communication facilities4. Exploited natural resources: minerals, lumber, rubber, human rights.5. Expanded educational opportunities5. Downgraded traditional African culture westernization