Presentation on theme: "THE “DARK” CONTINENT “Dark Continent” – racist terminology referred to both the peoples of Africa and their alleged ignorance In reality, Africa has always."— Presentation transcript:
THE “DARK” CONTINENT “Dark Continent” – racist terminology referred to both the peoples of Africa and their alleged ignorance In reality, Africa has always had diverse groups of people with their own unique cultures and histories Civilizations Languages Religions
GEOGRAPHY OF AFRICA Continent – not a country Continent is three times larger than Europe Northern Africa – desert Mid-to-southern Africa – diverse climates and topography
DAVID LIVINGSTONE ( ) Scottish missionary – lived in central Africa Explored Africa Named Lake Victoria after the British queen Converted many Africans to Christianity Wrote books on Africa which piqued foreign interest 1871 – reported “lost” “Found” by Henry Stanley “Dr. Livingstone, I presume?”
HENRY STANLEY ( ) Welsh-American reporter “Found” Dr. Livingstone in Africa “Dr. Livingstone, I presume?” Explored Africa Congo River Lake Tanganyika Lake Victoria Worked with Belgium’s King Leopold II and his African colonization company International African Society
In the 1870s the Belgians began to trade with Africans in the Congo. King Leopold Fearing they would miss out on various raw materials, the other European nations scrambled to establish their presence on the continent.
KARL PETERS ( ) German explorer in Africa Organized and propagandized for Germany’s colonial expansion Founded the Society for German Colonization Acquired German East Africa (modern-day Tanzania) Convinced Otto von Bismarck to take over German East Africa and increase Germany’s colonies in Africa
In 1884, to avoid conflict amongst themselves, European leaders met at the Berlin Conference to set up rules for colonizing Africa. No Africans were invited. Berlin Conference
The European powers agreed that before they could claim territory they would have to set up an outpost. Whoever was the first to build the outpost gained that area of land. Berlin Conference
CECIL RHODES ( ) British businessman and politician in southern Africa Made a fortune from African diamond mines Established South African Company Land later became Rhodesia (Zimbabwe) Prime minister of Cape Colony ( ) Wanted British control over South Africa Wanted Cape-to-Cairo Railroad Architect of British imperialism in southern Africa Great Britain became leading colonial power in southern Africa
CECIL RHODES ( )
Cape Colony In the mid-1600s, Dutch farmers known as Boers settled in southern Africa in Cape Colony. The Boers built Cape Town as a supply station. In the 1700s, the Dutch herders and ivory hunters began to move north. The British then acquired Cape Colony in the early 1800s. The Boers Cape Town Cape Colony Boers AFRICA
In the late 1800s, the discovery of gold and diamonds in the northern Boer territory set off the Anglo-Boer war. The war was from and involved bitter guerrilla fighting. The British won, but at a great cost. The Anglo-Boer War British Boers
The Zulus In the early 1800s in southern Africa, an African leader named Shaka conquered and united tribes to form the Zulu nation. Zulu Nation Cape Town Cape Colony Shaka Zulu
The Zulus The Zulus were skilled and organized fighters. Shaka used his power and fought against European slave traders and ivory hunters.
The Zulus Zulu Nation The Zulus also fought the Boers as they migrated north from Cape Colony. Cape Town Cape Colony Boers
The Anglo-Zulu War The Zulus came into conflict with the British as well. In 1879 the Zulus wiped out a British force at the battle of Isandlwana.
However, it was not long before the superior weaponry of the British overtook the Zulus at the battle of Rorke’s Drift. The Anglo-Zulu War
European Territory AFRICA Cape Town Cape Colony In 1910, with southern Africa secure, the British established the Republic of South Africa and instituted apartheid. Apartheid – government policy calling for separation of the races. South Africa
Britain’s claims in Africa were second in size only to France, but included heavily populated areas with greater natural resources. British Territory Britain controlled Egypt because of its strategic location.
BRITISH IN NORTH AFRICA
EUROPEANS IN EGYPT 1870s – with the Egyptian government bankrupt, the British and French took over financial control of the country – Egyptian monarchs (technically Ottoman viceroys) ruled as puppet leaders 1882 – Egyptian nationalist rebellion – France withdrew its troops – Great Britain left in control of Egypt Lord Cromer introduced reforms – De facto British protectorate Made official in 1914 Independence came in 1922
BRITISH IN NORTHERN AFRICA Sudan – Area south of Egypt – Under Anglo-Egyptian control – Cotton needed for British textile mills – Entente Cordiale (1904) Great Britain controlled Sudan France controlled Morocco Cape-to-Cairo Railroad – Idea of Cecil Rhodes – Would secure Great Britain’s dominance in Africa – Never completed – sections missing through modern Sudan and Uganda
Cape-to-Cairo Railway: Crossing over Victoria Falls
France was very powerful in North Africa, and later spread into West and Central Africa. The territory France controlled was as large as the United States. French Territory
The newly formed German empire had to fight many battles against African natives to take lands in the southern half of Africa. German Territory Germany would lose its colonial territories after its loss in World War I.
The Italians crossed the Mediterranean and conquered Libya. They then took Somaliland in the horn of Africa, but were beaten badly by the Ethiopians. Italian Territory
King Leopold and other wealthy Belgians exploited the riches of the Congo, and brutalized the natives. Many Africans were enslaved, beaten, and killed. Belgium Territory
Although the leaders of the old imperialism, the African claims of the Portuguese and Spanish were minimal. Portuguese Territory Spanish Territory
Britain France Germany Italy Portugal Belgium Spain Europeans In Africa By 1914
After the slave trade was outlawed, abolitionists in the United States promoted the idea of returning freed slaves to Africa. Independent Africans In the early 1800s, President Monroe helped free slaves settle in Liberia. The former slaves named the capital city Monrovia in his honor. President Monroe
Independent Africans The Ethiopians kept their freedom through a successful military resistance. Emperor Menelik II modernized the army, along with roads, bridges, and schools. When the Italians invaded they were defeated so badly by Menelik that no other Europeans tried to take Ethiopia.
Positive ResultsNegative Results 1. Unified national states created1. Encouraged tribal wars by creating artificial borders 2. Improved medical care, sanitation, and nutrition 2. Created population explosion famine 3. Increased agricultural production3. Produced cash crops needed by Europeans, and not food for Africans 4. Improved transportation and communication facilities 4. Exploited natural resources: minerals, lumber, rubber, human rights. 5. Expanded educational opportunities 5. Downgraded traditional African culture westernization